Kriptovalute (kriptožetoni, tokens) v zasebnem pravu in v izvršilnem postopku

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Povzetek: Članek analizira pravni položaj bitcoinov in kriptovalut v zasebnem pravu in v izvršilnih postopkih. Predstavi tudi gospodarske vrste kriptožetonov. Kriptovalute niso zakonita plačilna sredstva oziroma denar v pravnem smislu. Kriptožetoni se delijo na vgrajene (native tokens) kriptožetone, kot so kriptovalute (bitcoin), in nevgrajene (non-native) kriptožetone. Vgrajenih kriptožetonov ne moremo klasificirati v pravnem redu, gre za pravno neznane predmete, ki niso ne stvari, ne denar, ne terjatve, saj ne obstaja izdajatelj ali pa dolžnik, ki bi imel svojo vrednost. Nevgrajeni kriptožetoni pa v slovenskem pravu tudi niso stvari oziroma denar. So pa relativne pravice, kjer je dolžnik znan, lahko se jih prenaša, so standardizirani (vrstni) in se z njimi lahko trguje na sekundarnem trgu. Brez težav se jih lahko opredeli kot vrednostne papirje v smislu direktive MiFID II, vendar v Sloveniji niso obravnavani kot nematerializirani vrednostni papirji. Članek analizira tudi razpolaganje s kriptožetoni ter njihov položaj v izvršilnem in stečajnem postopku. Analizirana so vprašanja izvršbe za izterjavo denarne terjatve, za uveljavitev nedenarne terjatve ter vprašanja izločitvene in ločitvene pravice v zvezi s kriptožetoni in kriptovalutami. Ključne besede: kriptožetoni, bitcoini, zasebno pravo, žetoni, vgrajeni žetoni (native tokens), nevgrajeni žetoni (non-native tokens), denar, zakonito plačilno sredstvo, stvar, terjatev, vrednostni papir, upnik, dolžnik, izvršba za plačilo denarne terjatve, izvršba za uveljavitev nedenarne terjatve, stečajna masa, izločitvena pravica, ločitvena pravica Title: Cryptocurrencies (Cryptocurrency Tokens) in Private Law and Enforcement Proceedings Abstract: The article examines in the legal status of bitcoins and cryptocurrencies in private law and in various enforcement proceedings. The article gives an overview of major economic types of tokens. Cryptocurrencies are not legal tender and a means of payments in legal terms. Cryptocurrencies are also divided into native tokens, such as cryptocurrencies (Bitcoins), and non-native tokens. Native tokens cannot be legally classified, they are legally unknown objects, and are neither assets within the meaning of Slovenian property law nor currency nor claims, since there is no issuer or debtor, yet they have their market value. Non-native tokens are not assets or currency in Slovenian law. However, there are relative rights with a known debtor, which can be transferred, they are standardised (peer) and can be traded on the secondary market. They can easily be classified as securities within the meaning of the MiFID II Directive, but they are not dematerialized securities in Slovenia. The article then analyses the transfer of tokens and their position in enforcement and bankruptcy proceedings. Questions of enforcement proceedings ad solvendam pecuniam and ad praestandum factum are assessed. As far as collective insolvency proceedings are concerned, questions of right of segregation from the bankrupt's estate and of the right of separation for preferential satisfaction are assessed. Keywords: cryptocurrency, Bitcoins, private law, tokens - native tokens, non native tokens, currency, means of payment, property, claim, securities, obligor, obligee, enforcement ad solvendam pecuniam, enforcement ad praestandum factum, bankrupt's estate, right of segregation from the bankrupt's estate, right separation for preferential satisfaction


 

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