Odgovornost organov vodenja in nadzora po splošnih korporacijskih pravilih in odgovornost organov vodenja in nadzora odvisne družbe pri dejanskih koncernih

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Povzetek: Odgovornost organov vodenja in nadzora je eno ključnih vprašanj korporacijskega prava. V prispevku se avtor ukvarja s splošno korporacijsko odgovornostjo organov vodenja in nadzora po 263. členu ZGD-1. Obravnava jo tako, da predstavi pomen pravila podjetniške presoje po veljavni ureditvi. Pri tem se ukvarja tudi z zahtevki zoper organe vodenja in nadzora ter s tem povezanimi stroški. Ugotavlja, kakšen je vpliv na dejansko uveljavljanje takih zahtevkov v praksi ter kakšne so možne spremembe za njihovo lažje in učinkovitejše uveljavljanje. Predstavi tudi odgovornost organov odvisne družbe pri dejanskem koncernu po 548. členu ZGD-1, ki je del koncernskega prava in je namenjena predvsem varovanju manjšinskih delničarjev, odvisne družbe in upnikov odvisne družbe. Opredeli se do trenutno veljavne dikcije 548. člena na podlagi obveznosti in odgovornosti, ki jih imajo organi vodenja in nadzora odvisne družbe pri sestavi in pregledu poročila o odvisnosti. Odgovornost organov odvisne družbe pri dejanskem koncernu ne izpodriva splošne korporacijske odgovornosti organov vodenja in nadzora, zato je poznavanje slednje nujno za razumevanje odgovornosti organov odvisne družbe pri dejanskih koncernih. Celovita predstavitev obeh institutov bralcu ponudi zaokrožen pregled nad odgovornostjo organov vodenja in nadzora tako v primeru, ko je družba vključena v dejanski koncern, kot v primeru, da ni. Avtor se opredeli tudi do uveljavljanja zahtevkov manjšinskih delničarjev, odvisne družbe in upnikov. Glede tega pri dejanskem koncernu opozori na nujnost analogne uporabe pravil o povrnitvi stroškov v zvezi s tožbo v imenu družbe na zahtevo manjšine po 328. členu ZGD-1, v katerem je predvidena obveznost družbe, da založi predujem za kritje sodnih stroškov. Posebne obravnave so deležne tudi manjšinske pravice v zvezi z uveljavljanjem odgovornosti organov vodenja in nadzora. Na koncu prispevka avtor sistematično strne vse ugotovitve in se do njih opredeli ter poda svoje predloge za spremembe zakona. Ključne besede: odgovornost organov vodenja in nadzora, dejanski koncern, odvisna družba, odgovornost organov odvisne družbe, uveljavljanje zahtevkov, actio pro socio, stroški Title: Liability of Management and Supervisory Bodies according to General Corporate Rules and Liability of Controlled Company's Management and Supervisory Bodies in De Facto Groups Abstract: The responsibility of management and supervisory bodies is one of the key issues of corporate law. In the subject paper, the author deals with the general corporate responsibility of management and supervisory bodies under Article 263 of the Companies Act (ZGD-1) by presenting the importance of the business judgment rule under the applicable regulation. Issues of claims against management and supervisory bodies, as well as related costs, are also raised. In this regard, the author determines the effect on the actual implementation of such claims in practice and possible changes for their easier and more effective enforcement. The author also presents the responsibility of controlled company''s bodies in a de facto group under Article 548 of ZGD-1, which is part of concern law and primarily serves the protection of minority shareholders, controlled companies and its creditors. The author defines the current diction of Article 548 of ZGD-1 by outlining the obligations and responsibilities of managing and supervisory bodies of controlled companies when drafting and reviewing the report on relations with affiliated companies. The responsibility of controlled company''s bodies in a de facto group does not eliminate the general corporate responsibility of management and supervisory bodies. Therefore, an understanding of the general corporate responsibility of management and supervisory bodies is crucial for understanding the responsibilities of a controlled company in a de facto group. Through a comprehensive presentation of both institutes, the reader is provided with a complete overview of the responsibility of management and supervisory bodies, both when the company is included in a de facto group and when it is not. The author also defines the application of claims by minority shareholders, controlled companies and creditors. Regarding the question of covering the legal costs in cases of a de facto group, the author also emphasises the need for mutatis mutandis application of the rules on reimbursement of expenses in case of a lawsuit on behalf of a company at the request of minority shareholders under Article 328 of ZGD-1. This article provides for an obligation for the company to make an advance payment to cover legal costs. Minority rights in exercising the responsibility of the management and control bodies also are discussed in this paper. In closing, the author systematically summarises all the findings and reviews them. The author also submits proposals for changes of the Companies Act (ZGD-1). Keywords: responsibility of management and supervisory bodies, de facto group, responsibility of controlled company''s bodies, implementation of claims, actio pro socio, legal costs


 

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