Sorazmernost in razločnost v kaznovalnem materialnem pravu - doktrinarni primanjkljaj

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Povzetek: Zaradi spremenjene paradigme vrednotenja oblastnega ravnanja, ki je v ospredje začela postavljati človekove (individualne) pravice, se je pravo o prekrških približalo kazenskemu pravu. Zajelo je celotne materialnopravne kazenske garancije, procesnopravne pa z določenimi odmiki, ob možnosti prizadete osebe, da zahteva njihovo popolno zagotovitev. Pripoznanje kaznovalnega značaja prekrškom je ustvarilo potrebo po izoblikovanju jasnega merila razlikovanja med njimi in kaznivimi dejanji. Odločilna razlika je v stopnji družbene nevarnosti, sodobneje rečeno: stopnji materialne protipravnosti ravnanja. Ta element po eni strani narekuje uporabo testa sorazmernosti v celotnem kaznovalnem pravu, po drugi strani pa iskanje presežka pri presoji prekrivanja inkriminacij prekrškov in kaznivih dejanj. V praksi Ustavnega sodišča RS ni izoblikovane teoretično dosledne doktrine obravnave teh problemov. Sporno je stališče sodišča o prosti presoji zakonodajalca na polju kaznovalnega prava, ker ne upošteva načela ultima ratio. V zadevi, v kateri je primerjalo konkurenčni inkriminaciji trgovanja na podlagi notranjih informacij iz Kazenskega zakonika in Zakona o trgu finančnih instrumentov, je sodišče opravilo ozko kvantitativno analizo zakonskih znakov, ne da bi opredelilo jasen vsebinski razlikovalni znak. Ker gre pri regulaciji trga finančnih instrumentov za področje deljene pristojnosti držav članic in EU, bi bilo treba pri presoji prekrška uporabe notranjih informacij upoštevati tudi načelo harmonične razlage. Ključne besede: kaznovalno pravo, kazensko pravo, pravo o prekrških, načelo pravne države, načelo sorazmernosti, načelo jasnosti in določnosti, načelo razločnosti, test arbitrarnosti, prekrivanje kaznivih dejanj in prekrškov, pravna dobrina, družbena nevarnost, ne bis in idem, načelo harmonične razlage, trgovanje na podlagi notranjih informacij, Direktiva 2003/6/ES o zlorabi trga Abstract:Due to the paradigm shift in the evaluation of government power that begun to emphasise person’s individual rights, the administrative criminal law (law on minor offenses) moved closer to criminal law. It encompassed all substantial guarantees of criminal law. Procedural guarantees were brought with certain derogation provided that the person concerned was allowed to demand a full set. Recognising the penal character of administrative offenses has created the need to formulate a clear measure of distinction between them and criminal offenses. The decisive difference is in the degree of social danger/harmfulness - in contemporary terms: the degree of substantial unlawfulness of conduct. On the one hand, this element implies the application of the proportionality test throughout criminal law, and, on the other hand, the search for a surplus in the assessment of the overlapping incriminations of criminal and administrative offenses. In the case law of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia, a theoretically consistent doctrine of dealing with these problems has not been formulated. The Court’s view that the legislator has a wide discretion in the field of penal law is disputed since it is not in line with the principle of ultima ratio. When comparing the competitive incriminations of insider dealing in the Penal Code and in the Market of Financial Instruments Act, the court narrowly analysed qualitative elements of respectful descriptions without defining a clear substantive distinctive sign. Since the regulation of the markets in financial instruments is a shared competence between the Member States and the EU, the principle of harmonious interpretation should be considered in the assessment of the offense. Keywords: penal law, criminal law, administrative penal law, rule of law principle, principle of proportionality, principle of legal certainty, test of arbitrariness, overlapping of criminal offenses and administrative offenses, legal interest, social danger / harmfulness, ne bis in idem principle, principle of harmonious interpretation, insider dealing, the market abuse Directive 2003/6/EC


 

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