Novosti na področju pokojninskega zavarovanja in postopek za uveljavljanje in varstvo pravic iz pokojninskega in invalidskega zavarovanja

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Povzetek: Pravica do pokojnine je v Republiki Sloveniji opredeljena kot ena temeljnih pravic do socialne varnosti. Temelji na določbah Ustave RS, ki v 50. členu določa, da imajo državljani "pod pogoji, določenimi z zakonom, pravico do socialne varnosti, vključno s pravico do pokojnine". V tem členu je določena narava slovenskega pokojninskega sistema, ki je eden izmed ključnih elementov socialne države. Pomembna lastnost pokojnine je, da gre za pravico dolgotrajne narave, saj pretežnemu delu upravičencev zagotavlja edini vir dohodka za preživljanje v starosti. Obvezno zavarovanje financirajo zavarovanci, delodajalci in Republika Slovenija, financira pa se tudi iz demografskega rezervnega sklada in drugih virov, določenih v Zakonu o pokojninskem in invalidskem zavarovanju (ZPIZ-2), ki je bil sprejet decembra 2012 in se uporablja od 1. januarja 2013. V samostojni Sloveniji so bile v letih 1992, 2000 in 2013 uveljavljene tri zelo zahtevne sistemske pokojninske reforme ter številne druge zakonske spremembe. O potrebnosti reforme pokojninskega in invalidskega zavarovanja, ki je bila uveljavljena 1. januarja 2013, in ciljih, ki jih je treba doseči, med socialnimi partnerji ni bilo bistvenih razhajanj. Zelo pomembno je, da je prišlo do reforme obstoječega sistema, ki temelji na medgeneracijski solidarnosti in je s prilagoditvami uspešno preživel tako gospodarske krize kot vojne. Tudi v prihodnje ga bo treba s pravočasnimi manjšimi ali večjimi spremembami in dopolnitvami prilagajati ter s tem zagotavljati dolgoročno finančno stabilnost in dostojne pokojnine, kar sta bila glavna cilja te reforme. Uveljavitev reforme sistema pokojninskega in invalidskega zavarovanja z ZPIZ-2, ki je dokaj radikalna in daje pozitivne rezultate, je korak v pravo smer. Za stabilnost sistema in celotne države pa so poleg drugih reform odločilni predvsem gospodarska rast, nova delovna mesta, stabilen bančni sistem in finančna disciplina. Pravice iz obveznega zavarovanja se uveljavljajo pri Zavodu za pokojninsko in invalidsko zavarovanje Slovenije po zakonu, ki ureja splošni upravni postopek, če ni z ZPIZ-2 določeno drugače. Ključne besede: pokojninsko in invalidsko zavarovanje, obvezno zavarovanje, pravica do pokojnine, reforma sistema, medgeneracijska solidarnost, finančna stabilnost, dostojne pokojnine, uveljavljanje pravic Title: New Developments in the Pension Insurance and the Procedure for the Enforcement and Protection of Rights under the Pension and Disability Insurance Scheme Abstract: In the Republic of Slovenia, the right to a pension is defined as one of the fundamental rights to social security. It is based on the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, with Article 50 providing that citizens "have the right to social security, including the right to a pension, under conditions provided by law." Thus it defines the nature of the Slovenian pension scheme, which constitutes one of the key elements of a welfare state. An important feature of a pension is their long-term nature, since for the majority of beneficiaries it is the only source of income in their old age. Compulsory insurance is financed by insured persons, employers and the Republic of Slovenia, as well as by the Demographic Reserve Fund and other sources set out in the Pension and Disability Insurance Act - 2 (ZPIZ-2). In 1992, 2000 and 2013, following Slovenia's independence, three extremely complex systemic pension reforms, as well as a number of other legal changes, were implemented. There had been no substantial divergences between social partners either on the need for reform of the pension and disability insurance scheme, which took effect on 1 January 2013, or on the objectives to be achieved. It is very important that a reform of the existent scheme based on inter-generational solidarity was carried out, which has managed, with adjustments, to overcome economic crises and wars. In the future, further timely minor or major changes and amendments will have to be introduced to secure long-term financial stability and decent pensions - the 2013 reform's two main objectives. The implementation of this rather radical reform of the pension and disability insurance scheme, ZPIZ-2, which has shown to deliver positive results, has proven to be a step in the right direction. However, to ensure the stability of the pension scheme and the whole country, economic growth, new jobs, a stable banking system and financial discipline are required in addition to other reforms. Unless stipulated otherwise under ZPIZ-2, claims under the compulsory insurance scheme need to be submitted to the Pension and Disability Insurance Institute of Slovenia as prescribed by the law governing the general administrative procedure. Keywords: pension and disability insurance, compulsory insurance, right to a pension, system reform, inter-generational solidarity, financial stability, decent pensions, enforcing rights


 

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