Varstvo delavcev pred odpovedjo pogodbe o zaposlitvi v primeru spremembe delodajalca: primer prava Republike Srbije

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Povzetek: Postopek prostovoljnega in delnega usklajevanja srbske zakonodaje z delovnim pravom Evropske unije (EU) je bil sprožen na začetku tega tisočletja, njegov končni cilj pa je sprejetje celotnega pravnega reda EU na tem področju, kar je pogoj za članstvo v EU. Pravni red EU zato še vedno močno vpliva na razvoj delovnega prava v Srbiji, toda le v zvezi z zakonodajo EU, medtem ko je vpliv odločitev Sodišča EU skoraj zanemarljiv, če sploh obstaja. Ta sklep velja tudi, ko gre za pravila o varstvu delavcev v primeru spremembe delodajalca, vključno z njihovim varstvom pred prenehanjem pogodb o zaposlitvi zaradi spremembe delodajalca kot takšne. Ker tega varstva ni mogoče pravilno in popolnoma razumeti brez opozarjanja na koncept spremembe delodajalca v srbskem pravu ter na ključne vidike varstva delovnih pravic v primeru te oblike sukcesije, bo to vprašanje v prvem delu članka obravnavano v luči evropskega koncepta prenosa podjetja. V nadaljevanju bo analizirana normativna vsebina načela ohranitve zaposlitve v primeru spremembe delodajalca in vprašanje varstva delavcev pred neutemeljeno odpovedjo, še zlasti pa vprašanje spremembe delodajalca kot neutemeljenega razloga za odpoved. Slednje se zdi pomembno, saj je v pravu Republike Srbije prepoved odpovedi posredna posledica zakonskih določb o spremembi delodajalca. Kljub temu pa so v praksi pogoste zlorabe pooblastil delodajalcev, kar je povzročilo odpuščanje izjemno velikega števila delavcev neposredno pred prestrukturiranjem podjetij ali kmalu po njem, medtem ko so delovne razmere delavcev, katerih zaposlitev je ohranjena, znatno poslabšane. Ključne besede: sprememba delodajalca, delavske pravice, odpoved pogodbe o zaposlitvi, srbsko pravo, usklajevanje s pravom EU Title: Protection of Employees against Dismissal in the Event of Change of Employer: Case of Serbian law Abstract: The process of voluntary and partial harmonisation of Serbian law with EU labour law started at the beginning of the new millennium, with the objective to adopt the entire EU acquis, which is a condition for EU membership. EU legislation therefore still significantly affects the development of Serbian labour law, while the effects of the rulings of the EU Court of Justice are almost negligible, if not non-existent. This conclusion is also true with regard to the rules on protection of employees in the event of a change of employer, including the protection against dismissal in the event of a change of employer. As the proper and complete understanding of this protection would not be possible without first understanding the concept of a change of employer in Serbian law, as well as key aspects of protection of rights of employees covered with this type of succession, the first part of the article will tackle this issue in view of the European concept of transfer of undertakings. After that, the normative content of the principle of preserving employment in the event of a change of employer will be analysed, while the subsequent part of the article will be dedicated to protection of employees from unfair dismissal, and more specifically, the issue of change of employer as an invalid reason for dismissal. This last issue is significant, since in Serbian law prohibition of dismissal is indirectly derived from the legal provisions devoted to a change of employer. In spite of this, in practice, employers often abuse their prerogatives, which results in dismissal of employees immediately before or shortly after company restructuring, while the working conditions of employees whose employment is preserved significantly worsen. Key words: change of employer, rights of employees, termination of employment, Serbian law, harmonisation with EU law


 

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