Nekatere dileme odvzema protipravne premoženjske koristi s poudarkom na gospodarskih kaznivih dejanjih

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Povzetek: Aktualno stanje obravnavanja kaznivih dejanj, zlasti gospodarskih, korupcijskih in tudi drugih, še posebno tistih, ki spadajo na področje organizirane kriminalitete, izraža trend osredotočenosti pri izrekanju obsodilnih sodb storilcem teh kaznivih dejanj ne zgolj na (dolgotrajne) prostostne kazni, temveč vse bolj na odvzem protipravno pridobljenih koristi. Kljub vsem spremembam kazenskopravne, tako materialne kot procesne zakonodaje, institut odvzema premoženjske koristi v našem pravu še vedno ne dosega zakonskega namena in je v tem pogledu še zmeraj premalo učinkovit, odločanje o tem vprašanju pa vezano na prenekatere dileme. Kot nezadostno učinkovitost je treba šteti zlasti nedosledno uporabo kazenskega materialnega prava, ne dovolj izkoriščene procesne mehanizme in navsezadnje premajhen izplen izvršitve pravnomočnih sodb. V prispevku je uvodoma predstavljena pravna podlaga za odvzem premoženjske koristi, vključno z ustavnopravnimi merili, ki upravičujejo odvzem s kaznivim dejanjem pridobljenih koristi. S vprašanjem pravne narave obravnavanega instituta pa se neizbežno povezuje vprašanje ugotavljanja obsega premoženjske koristi, ki je tako v teoriji kot v praksi posebno problematično. Nadalje je v prispevku obravnavano razmerje med ukrepom odvzema premoženjske koristi in premoženjskopravnim zahtevkom oškodovanca s kritičnim pogledom na aktualno zakonsko ureditev. Posebne pozornosti pa je v luči najnovejše sodne prakse deležno vprašanje ločenosti premoženja družbe od premoženja njenih družbenikov. V sklepnem delu prispevka so izpostavljene še nekatere procesnopravne dileme, povezane zlasti z zac?asnim zavarovanjem zahtevka za odvzem premoženjske koristi v luči pričakovanih sprememb kazenske procesne zakonodaje. Ključne besede: kazensko pravo, odvzem premoženjske koristi, znak kaznivega dejanja, začasno zavarovanje, obseg premoženjske koristi, premoženjskopravni zahtevek oškodovanca, premoženje družbe, premoženje družbenikov Title: Certain Dilemmas Regarding the Deprivation of Illegal Proceeds, with an Emphasis on Economic Offences Abstract: The state of the art of dealing with criminal offenses, in particular with economic, corruption, as well as other types of criminal offenses, especially those that fall within the sphere of organized crime, reflects the trend of focusing not only on (long-term) prison sentences, but more and more on the withdrawal of unlawfully acquired benefits. Despite all the changes in the criminal law, both substantive and procedural, the institute for the deprivation of proceeds in our law still does not achieve the legal purpose, and in this respect it is still insufficiently effective, and deciding on this issue is linked to a number of dilemmas. Insufficient effectiveness is reflected primarily in the inconsistent application of criminal substantive law, the underutilization of procedural mechanisms and, ultimately, the under-execution of final judgments. In the article, the legal basis for the deprivation of proceeds, including the constitutional legal criteria, justifying the withdrawal of the acquired benefits from the crime, is presented in the introduction. The question of the legal nature of the institute concerned is inevitably connected with the question of determining the magnitude of the material benefits, which is both problematic in theory and in practice. Furthermore, the article deals with the relationship between the measure of taking away the proceeds and the claims of the injured party with a critical view of the current legislation. However, in the light of the recent case law, special attention is paid to the issue of separation of the company''s assets from the assets of its members. In the final part of the paper, some procedural legal dilemmas related to the temporary securing of a claim for the withdrawal of proceeds in the light of anticipated changes in criminal procedural legislation are also exposed. Key words: criminal law, confiscation, proceeds from crime, element of criminal offence, temporary securing, magnitude of material benefits, property damage claim, company''s assets, assets of company''s members


 

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