Neodvisnost, potencialno nasprotje interesov in nasprotje interesov pri članih nadzornega sveta

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Povzetek: V prispevku so opredeljeni pojmi neodvisnost, potencialno nasprotje interesov in nasprotje interesov, vsi v zvezi s člani nadzornega sveta, ter analizirane določbe zakonov in priporočila kodeksov v zvezi z njimi. Nekateri pravni viri teh pojmov sploh ne definirajo (na primer ZGD-1), definicije v pravnih virih (zlasti kodeksih) pa se med seboj razlikujejo. Na splošno je neodvisnost mogoče razumeti kot odsotnost trajnejše povezave s katerokoli tretjo osebo oziroma entiteto, ki bi lahko vplivala na člana nadzornega sveta pri konkretnem ravnanju oziroma odločanju tako, da bi večkrat ravnal pristransko oziroma odločil v nasprotju z interesom družbe. Potencialno nasprotje interesov je položaj, v katerem obstajajo v zvezi s članom nadzornega sveta ali kandidatom za člana nadzornega sveta okoliščine, ki bi ga lahko kot člana nadzornega sveta pripeljale v nasprotje interesov, če in ko bi nadzorni svet sprejemal konkretne odločitve z vsebino, ki je v zvezi s takimi okoliščinami. Odvisnost je najbolj tipičen primer relevantnega dlje časa trajajočega potencialnega nasprotja interesov. Za nasprotje interesov gre, ko se posamezen član nadzornega sveta pri konkretnem ravnanju oziroma v zvezi s konkretno odločitvijo dejansko znajde v primežu dveh nasprotujočih si interesov, to je interesa družbe, v skladu s katerim je dolžan ravnati na podlagi korporacijskopravnega razmerja z družbo, in svojega zasebnega interesa. Cilj vseh treh institutov je varovati dobro družbe pa tudi zaupanje v nadzorne svete in njihovo delo. Pri tem je namen instituta neodvisnosti in potencialnega nasprotja interesov preprečiti obstoj ali zmanjšati število položajev, ki bi prepogosto vodili v pomembna dejanska nasprotja interesov, namen instituta nasprotja interesov pa urediti potrebno ravnanje, če do nasprotja interesov pride (zlasti izločitev iz glasovanja in razprave). Kot problematično avtor označi tudi zahtevo kodeksov po neodvisnosti članov nadzornega sveta od večinskega delničarja, saj gre za inherentno potencialno nasprotje interesov, ki izhaja iz zakonsko predvidene interesne sestave nadzornih svetov. Interes družbe se v konkretnem primeru izkristalizira tudi prek razprave o tem, kakšne interese imajo glavni deležniki družbe (lastniki in delavci). Ključne besede: neodvisnost, potencialno nasprotje interesov, nasprotje interesov, nadzorni svet, dolžnost zvestobe družbi Title: Independence, Potential Conflict of Interest and Conflict of Interest for Members of the Supervisory Board Abstract: In the article, the author defines the concepts of independence, potential conflict of interest, and conflict of interest, all in relation to the members of the Supervisory Board, and analyses the provisions of laws and recommendations of codes associated with them. Some legal sources do not define these concepts (e.g. ZGD-1), and in other cases, these definitions in legal sources (especially codes) differ. In general, independence can be understood as absence of a permanent connection with any other third party/entity, which could affect members of the Supervisory Board in specific conduct or decision-making, so that these members would repeatedly act with bias or make decisions contrary to the interests of the company. Potential conflict of interest is a situation in which there are circumstances related to a member of the Supervisory Board or a candidate for a member of the Supervisory Board, which could bring this person, as a member of the Supervisory Board, in a conflict of interest, if and when the Supervisory Board would adopt concrete decisions with a content related to such circumstances. Dependence is the most typical example of a relevant prolonged potential conflict of interest. Conflict of interest occurs when an individual member of the Supervisory Board in a particular conduct or in connection to a concrete decision finds onseself in the middle of two conflicting interests, i.e. on the one hand, between interest of the company, according to which one is obliged to act based on corporate relationship with the company, and on the other hand, ones private interests. The objective of all three institutes is to protect the benefit of the company, as well as to protect the confidence in Supervisory Boards and their work. In doing so, the purpose of the institute of independence and potential conflict of interest is to prevent the existence or reduce the number of situations that would often lead to significant and actual conflict of interest. The purpose of the institute of conflict of interest is to provide the required behaviour when conflicts of interest occur (in particular, exclusion from voting and debate). The author further highlights as problematic the request of codes for independence of members of the Supervisory Board from the majority shareholder, because it is an inherent potential conflict of interest arising from the composition of Supervisory Boards provided by law. In the present case, the interest of the company is crystallized through discussion about the interest of main stakeholders of the company (owners and workers). Key words: independence, potential conflict of interest, conflict of interest, supervisory board, duty of loyalty


 

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