Kaznivo dejanje pranja denarja po 245. členu KZ-1 - modernizacija izvršitvenih ravnanj in ugotavljanje subjektivnega elementa

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Povzetek: Namen prispevka je začeti diskusijo o ustaljenem načinu razlage izvršitvenih ravnanj, ki so določena v prvem odstavku 245. člena KZ-1. Iz izredno skope sodne prakse slovenskih sodišč in primerov, s katerimi se ukvarjam, ugotavljam, da odkrivanje in pregon storilcev tega kaznivega dejanja v Sloveniji temelji večinoma na tradicionalnih ravnanjih, ki predstavljajo zakonske znake pranja denarja, pri čemer modernih oblik skoraj ni mogoče zaznati. Določba prvega odstavka 245. člena KZ-1 je po mojem mnenju dovolj moderno in široko postavljena, da omogoča pregon in kaznovanje tudi modernih izvršitvenih oblik, ki so se pojavile z razvojem interneta, novih plačilnih sredstev (bitcoin, digitalne valute ipd.) in tudi računalniških igric. Omenjena določba omogoča oziroma nalaga vsakokratno ugotavljanje, ali ravnanje storilca ima ali bi lahko imelo za posledico zakritje ali poskus zakritja izvora "umazanega" denarja ali premoženja, tako da ni razloga, da se moderne oblike pranja denarja ne bi preganjale in storilci ne bi bili obsojeni. Ključne besede: pranje denarja, 245. člen KZ-1, izvršitveno ravnanje, darknet, bitcoin, subjektivni element kaznivega dejanja, dolus coloratus, izvor denarja Title: Criminal Offence of Money Laundering under the Article 245 of the KZ-1 - Modernisation of Executing Conducts and Determination of Subjective Element Abstract: The purpose of the article is to begin a discussion on the conventional interpretation of criminal conduct set forth under the first paragraph of Article 245 of the Criminal Code (Kazenski zakonik - KZ-1). Judging from the extremely sparse case law of Slovene courts as well as my own professional experience, the detection and prosecution of money laundering offenders in Slovenia has mainly been based on "traditional" types of criminal conduct, which involves substantive components of money laundering, while their contemporary forms are scarcely present. In my own opinion, however, the provision under the first paragraph of Article 245 of KZ-1 was designed with a sufficient degree of modernity as well as broadness to allow for the prosecution and punishment of contemporary criminal conducts which have emerged in the era of internet, new payment methods (bitcoin, digital currencies and the like) and also computer games. Based on this provision it can and should be ascertained in each particular case whether the conduct of an offender has or could have led to concealment or an attempt to conceal the source of "dirty" money or property: there is therefore no reason why contemporary forms of money laundering should not be prosecuted or their offenders convicted. Key words: money laundering, Article 245 of KZ-1, criminal conduct, darknet, bitcoin, subjective element of an offence, dolus coloratus, source of money


 

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