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letnik 2020, številka 5, 1. 8. 2020
> Kazalo

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Čezmejna preoblikovanja - nova normirana oblika (formalnega) statusnega preoblikovanja

Marijan Kocbek

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava čezmejno preoblikovanje, novo obliko statusnega preoblikovanja, ki jo ureja novela kodificirane direktive EU s področja prava družb. Analizira temeljne korporacijskopravne značilnosti čezmejnega preoblikovanja, katerega bistvena dela sta ohranitev pravne osebnosti in operacija brez prenehanja ali likvidacije družbe. V tem delu gre za podobnost z nacionalnim preoblikovanjem gospodarske družbe, od katerega pa se razlikuje v tem, da se družba lahko preoblikuje tudi v isto pravnoorganizacijsko obliko v drugi državi. Posebnost tega preoblikovanja, ki zahteva ustrezno urejenost korporacijskopravnih institutov, je element čezmejnosti. To pa nujno pomeni tudi spremembo vsaj statutarnega sedeža družbe z registracijo v drugi državi ter spremembo korporacijskega prava, ki se uporablja za preoblikovano gospodarsko družbo. Čezmejno se lahko preoblikujejo samo kapitalske družbe. Temeljni akt preoblikovanja je načrt čezmejnega preoblikovanja, v katerem se opredelijo vsi statusni atributi preoblikovane družbe v novi državi, tj. v ciljni državi, prav tako pa določbe, povezane z zaščito družbenikov in upnikov pri preoblikovanju družbe.

Ključne besede: statusno preoblikovanje, pravna osebnost, kapitalske družbe, register družb, zaščita družbenikov, zaščita upnikov

Title: Cross-Border Conversions - Newly Regulated Form of Company Conversion

Abstract: The author examines the cross-border conversion, which is a new form of company conversion governed by the amendment to the codified EU company law. The paper analyses the basic corporate legal characteristics of cross-border conversion, an essential element of which is the preservation of legal personality and operations without the termination or liquidation of the company. In this respect, there is a similarity with the national conversion of a company, but differs from it in that the company can also be converted into the same legal organizational form in another country. The peculiarity of this conversion, which requires properly regulated corporate law institutes, is the cross-border element. This, in turn, necessarily means a change in at least the registered office of the company with registration in another country and a change in the corporate law applicable to the converted company. Only corporations can undertake a cross-border conversion. The basic act of the conversion is a cross-border conversion plan, which defines all the corporate attributes of the converted company in the new (target) country and sets out the provisions regarding the protection of members/shareholders and creditors in the conversion of the company.

Keywords: company conversion, legal personality, corporations, company register, protection of members and shareholders, protection of creditors

Dolžnosti uprave v zvezi z upravljanjem tveganj v delniški družbi

Peter Podgorelec

Povzetek: Avtor v prvem delu članka kategorizira tveganja na pravna in čista ekonomska. Čista ekonomska tveganja so naprej razdeljena na projektna tveganja in na tveganja, ki ogrožajo obstoj podjetja. S pravnega vidika je takšna kategorizacija tveganj najpomembnejša. Hkrati avtor razmeji pojem tveganja od pojmov negotovost in nevarnost. V tem delu so posebej poudarjene dolžnosti uprave pri sprejemanju investicijskih odločitev, če obstaja verjetnost insolventnosti družbe. V drugem delu nato avtor podrobneje analizira upravljanje likvidnostnega tveganja ter tveganja horizontalne kapitalske strukture in dolžnosti uprave v zvezi s tem.

Ključne besede: delniška družba, uprava, upravljanje tveganj, likvidnostno tveganje, kapitalska ustreznost

Title: Management Board Duties in Relation to Risk Management in a Public Limited Company

Abstract: In the first part of the article, the author categorises risks into legal and pure economic risks. Pure economic risks are further divided into project risks and risks that threaten a company's existence. From a legal point of view, such a categorisation of risks is the most important. At the same time, the author distinguishes the concept of risk from the concepts of uncertainty and danger. In particular, this part emphasises the duties of the management board in making investment decisions if there is a potential likelihood of a company’s insolvency. In the second part, the author then analyses in more detail the liquidity risk management and the risk of the horizontal capital structure, as well as the duties of the management board in this regard.

Keywords: public limited company, management board, risk management, liquidity risk, capital adequacy

Napredek v preiskovanju kriminala v tesno povezani družbi: ali bodo posodobljeni instrumenti pravosodnega sodelovanja v EU odstranili ovire na poti iskanja pravice

Borka Jerman Blažič

Jan Stajnko

Tomaž Klobučar

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava aktualna vprašanja odstranjevanja ovir čezmejnega zbiranja elektronskih dokazov za učinkovitejše zatiranje tako splošne kot tudi kibernetske kriminalitete. Države pri poskusih omejevanja kibernetske kriminalitete naletijo na vrsto ovir zaradi nezadostnega razumevanja razsežnosti problematike pridobivanja čezmejnih elektronskih dokazov, zakonitosti pridobljenih podatkov in pravil o sodelovanju s ponudniki komunikacijskih storitev. Prispevek najprej kratko predstavi obstoječe pravne instrumente v EU s posebnim poudarkom na prizadevanjih za implementacijo Direktive 2014/41/EU, ki se nanaša na evropski preiskovalni nalog v kazenskih zadevah, ter postopek pridobivanja elektronskih dokazov po predlogu nove uredbe, ki ločeno ureja njihovo predložitev in zavarovanje. Nadalje je predstavljen nov model kategorizacije oblik in vrst podatkov, ki se nahajajo v komunikacijskem omrežju zunaj teritorija, kjer je kaznivo dejanje bilo izvršeno. Predstavljeni so tudi rezultati evropskega projekta LIVE_FOR, ki je bil namenjen povečevanju ozaveščenosti v pravni stroki o evropskem preiskovalnem nalogu. Avtorji zavzamejo stališče, da bi uporaba novega modela podatkov in novi postopki zbiranja elektronskih dokazov odstranili obstoječe ovire ter tako prispevali k večji učinkovitosti pravosodnega sistema.

Ključne besede: elektronski dokazi, digitalni dokazi, evropski preiskovalni nalog, evropsko kazensko pravo

Title: Advancement in Crime Investigation in a Closely Interconnected Society: Will the New and Updated EU Judicial Environment Remove the Barriers to Justice?

Abstract: This paper discusses the current issues and proposes legal remedies for removing the barriers to gathering cross-border electronic evidence for a more efficient fight against crime and cybercrime. Governments’ attempts to fight cybercrime face several barriers due to an inconsistent understanding of the problem in the search for cross-border e-evidence, the legality of the data being sought, and the rules for cooperation with communication service providers. The paper briefly presents the legal situation in the EU, the efforts related to the implementation of Directive 2014/41/EU, specifying the European Investigation Order in criminal matters, and the provision of legal procedures for cross-border e-evidence collection proposed by the new EU act for production and preservation orders. A new model of categorising the forms and types of data that reside on communication networks in a territory other than the location of the criminal act is presented as well. The results of the European project LIVE_FOR, intended to raise awareness of the European investigation order among legal professionals, are also presented. According to the authors, the application of the new data model and the new procedures for e-evidence collection promises to remove the current barriers and ensuires greater efficiency of the justice system.

Keywords: e-evidence, digital evidence, European investigation order, European criminal law

Reforma inženirskih poklicev na področju geodezije

Vesna Rijavec

Tjaša Ivanc

Povzetek: Namen prispevka je analiza nove pravne ureditve inženirskih poklicev po ZAID, zlasti na področju geodezije. Ob celoviti obravnavi sprememb se avtorici opredelita tudi do vprašanja zaostritve pogojev za pridobitev in vzdrževanje statusa pooblaščenega inženirja. Težava je predvsem nova zahteva, da mora biti pooblaščeni geodet v delovnem razmerju za polni delovni čas, izjemoma za krajši delovni čas ali pa samostojni podjetnik z obsegom dela za polni delovni čas. Ni sicer dvoma, da je izhodišče zakonodaje pravilno, saj morajo geodeti zagotavljati visoke standarde pri pripravi podlag za spremembe prostorskih podatkov in njihovo evidentiranje, vendar je pri regulaciji poklica potrebna sorazmernost. Pooblaščeni geodeti namreč opravljajo geodetske storitve na trgu v različnih ekonomskih pogojih, zato je treba upoštevati, da strožji pogoji vplivajo na njihovo konkurenčnost. Za pravilnost evidenc v končni fazi skrbi država, to je GURS. Vprašanje je zato, ali so omejitve res potrebne zaradi javnega interesa in ali ne kršijo ustavne kategorije o svobodni gospodarski pobudi. Po novi zakonodaji je treba tudi primerno oblikovati stališča, katere dele geodetske storitve še lahko opravi geodet, ki nima statusa pooblaščenega geodeta, glede na zahtevo po osebnem opravljanju nalog pooblaščenega inženirja, ki so v ZAID zajete splošno in celovito. V prispevku je obravnavan tudi položaj geodetskih podjetij.

Ključne besede: pooblaščeni inženir geodezije, geodetska dejavnost, reforma geodetske stroke, regulacija poklica, geodetska podjetja, ZAID

Title: Reform of Engineering Professions in the Field of Geodesy

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the position of a “certified geodesy surveyor” according to the Architecture and Civil Engineering Act (ZAID), especially in the field of geodesy. In addition to a comprehensive discussion of the legislative changes, the authors also discuss the question of tightening the conditions for obtaining and maintaining the status of a certified surveyor. The problem is mainly in the new requirement that a certified surveyor must be employed full-time, only exceptionally part-time, or as a sole entrepreneur with a full-time job. There is no doubt that the aim of the new regulation is correct, as surveyors must ensure high standards in the preparation of bases for changes of spatial data and their recording; however, when regulating the profession, the principle of proportionality should be ensured. Namely, certified surveyors provide surveying services on the market in different economic conditions, so it must be borne in mind that stricter conditions affect their competitiveness. Ultimately, the state, i.e. the Surveying and Mapping Authority of Republic of Slovenia, takes care of the accuracy of records. The question is therefore whether the restrictions are really necessary for the public interest, and whether such restrictions violate the constitutional category of free economic initiative.
According to the new legislation, it is also necessary to formulate appropriate positions on the parts of the surveying service that can still be performed by a surveyor who does not have the status of a certified surveyor, given the requirement of personal performance of the duties of a certified engineer, which are covered generally and comprehensively by the Architecture and Civil Engineering Act. The article also discusses the position of surveying companies.

Keywords: certified surveyor engineer, surveying service, reform of surveying profession, regulation of the profession, surveying companies

Pridobivanje lastnih delnic prek tretjih oseb v slovenskem in nemškem pravu

Jana Simonič

Povzetek: Avtorica se v prispevku ukvarja s pridobivanjem lastnih delnic prek tretjih oseb. Družba praviloma ne sme pridobivati t. i. lastnih delnic. V slovenskem kot tudi v nemškem pravu velja načelna prepoved derivativne pridobitve lastnih delnic, ki izhaja iz dveh načel, in sicer iz načela prepovedi vračila vložkov in iz načela, da družba ne more postati sama svoj delničar. ZGD-1 prepoveduje pridobivanje lastnih delnic s pomočjo tretje osebe. Enaka prepoved, kot je določena za tretje osebe, je določena tudi za odvisno družbo in za družbo v večinski lasti. Tretja oseba lahko v skladu z ZGD-1 pridobiva delnice družbe za račun družbe le v obsegu in pod pogoji, ki veljajo za delniško družbo samo. Z novelirano ureditvijo ZGD-1 se je izenačila ureditev tudi po originalnem nemškem vzoru v Aktiengesetz. Tako ZGD-1 kot AktG pa sta usklajena z določbami Druge kapitalske direktive, ki so zajete v danes veljavni Direktivi 2017/1132 v zvezi s pridobitvijo lastnih delnic. Čeprav je ZGD-1 sledil ureditvi v AktG, pa so med njima pomembne razlike v zvezi s pridobivanjem in odsvajanjem lastnih delnic družbe. V zvezi s pridobivanjem lastnih delnic so razlike glede lastnih delnic, ki so ponujene v odkup delavcem, in glede zagotovitve ustrezne odpravnine delavcem. Nemško pravo je pri navedenih izjemah širše, pri izjemi pridobivanja lastnih delnic prek nakupne komisije pa je bolj specifično kot slovensko. Pri odsvajanju lastnih delnic sta si primerjani uredit-vi precej enotni. Tako nemško kot slovensko pravo vsebujeta določbe, ki poskušajo preprečiti kršitve v zvezi s pridobivanjem lastnih delnic. Pomembne razlike so predvsem pri uveljavljanju družbeniške tožbe in odškodninskega zahtevka.

Ključne besede: lastne delnice, pridobivanje lastnih delnic prek tretjih oseb, družbeniška tožba, 251. in 247. člen ZGD-1, par. 71a in 71d AktG

Title: Acquisition of Own Shares with the Help of a Third Party in Slovenian and German Law

Abstract:The author discusses the acquisition of own shares with the help of a third party. As a rule, a company should not acquire so-called own shares. Neither Slovenian nor German law prohibits the derivative acquisition of own shares, based on two principles, namely, the principle of prohibition of the return of contributions and the principle of the company not being entitled to become its own shareholder. The Companies Act (ZGD-1) prohibits the acquisition of own shares with the help of a third party. The same prohibition as for third parties is also defined for subsidiaries and for majority-owned companies. In accordance with the Companies Act, a third party may acquire shares of the company on the account of the company only to the extent and under the conditions applicable to the public limited company. With the revised regulation of the Companies Act, the rule was made identical to the original German model in Aktiengesetz. In regard to the acquisition of own shares, both the Companies Act and AktG are in line with the provisions of the Second Capital Directive, which are now included in the 2017/1132 Directive. Despite the fact that the Companies Act followed the regulation in the German AktG, there are some important differences in the acquisition and disposal of the company’s own shares. In regard to the acquisition of own shares, there are differences in own shares offered for redemption to employees and in providing adequate compensation to employees. In the case of these exceptions, German law is broader; however, in the exception of the acquisition of own shares through a commission, it is more specific than Slovenian law. When disposing of own shares, the compared rules are quite uniform. Both German and Slovenian law contain provisions that seek to prevent violations in connection with the acquisition of own shares. Significant differences occur especially in the exercise of a direct shareholder lawsuit and damage claims.

Keywords: own shares, acquisition of own shares through third parties, direct shareholder lawsuit, Articles 251 and 247 of the Companies Act, par. 71a and 71d of AktG

VSEBINA

stran 667 Marijan Kocbek Čezmejna preoblikovanja - nova normirana oblika (formalnega) statusnega preoblikovanja Cross-Border Conversions - Newly Regulated Form of Company Conversion stran 690 Peter Podgorelec Dolžnosti uprave v zvezi

Marijan Kocbek

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava čezmejno preoblikovanje, novo obliko statusnega preoblikovanja, ki jo ureja novela kodificirane direktive EU s področja prava družb. Analizira temeljne korporacijskopravne značilnosti čezmejnega preoblikovanja, katerega bistvena dela sta ohranitev pravne osebnosti in operacija brez prenehanja ali likvidacije družbe. V tem delu gre za podobnost z nacionalnim preoblikovanjem gospodarske družbe, od katerega pa se razlikuje v tem, da se družba lahko preoblikuje tudi v isto pravnoorganizacijsko obliko v drugi državi. Posebnost tega preoblikovanja, ki zahteva ustrezno urejenost korporacijskopravnih institutov, je element čezmejnosti. To pa nujno pomeni tudi spremembo vsaj statutarnega sedeža družbe z registracijo v drugi državi ter spremembo korporacijskega prava, ki se uporablja za preoblikovano gospodarsko družbo. Čezmejno se lahko preoblikujejo samo kapitalske družbe. Temeljni akt preoblikovanja je načrt čezmejnega preoblikovanja, v katerem se opredelijo vsi statusni atributi preoblikovane družbe v novi državi, tj. v ciljni državi, prav tako pa določbe, povezane z zaščito družbenikov in upnikov pri preoblikovanju družbe.

Ključne besede: statusno preoblikovanje, pravna osebnost, kapitalske družbe, register družb, zaščita družbenikov, zaščita upnikov

Title: Cross-Border Conversions - Newly Regulated Form of Company Conversion

Abstract: The author examines the cross-border conversion, which is a new form of company conversion governed by the amendment to the codified EU company law. The paper analyses the basic corporate legal characteristics of cross-border conversion, an essential element of which is the preservation of legal personality and operations without the termination or liquidation of the company. In this respect, there is a similarity with the national conversion of a company, but differs from it in that the company can also be converted into the same legal organizational form in another country. The peculiarity of this conversion, which requires properly regulated corporate law institutes, is the cross-border element. This, in turn, necessarily means a change in at least the registered office of the company with registration in another country and a change in the corporate law applicable to the converted company. Only corporations can undertake a cross-border conversion. The basic act of the conversion is a cross-border conversion plan, which defines all the corporate attributes of the converted company in the new (target) country and sets out the provisions regarding the protection of members/shareholders and creditors in the conversion of the company.

Keywords: company conversion, legal personality, corporations, company register, protection of members and shareholders, protection of creditors

Peter Podgorelec

Povzetek: Avtor v prvem delu članka kategorizira tveganja na pravna in čista ekonomska. Čista ekonomska tveganja so naprej razdeljena na projektna tveganja in na tveganja, ki ogrožajo obstoj podjetja. S pravnega vidika je takšna kategorizacija tveganj najpomembnejša. Hkrati avtor razmeji pojem tveganja od pojmov negotovost in nevarnost. V tem delu so posebej poudarjene dolžnosti uprave pri sprejemanju investicijskih odločitev, če obstaja verjetnost insolventnosti družbe. V drugem delu nato avtor podrobneje analizira upravljanje likvidnostnega tveganja ter tveganja horizontalne kapitalske strukture in dolžnosti uprave v zvezi s tem.

Ključne besede: delniška družba, uprava, upravljanje tveganj, likvidnostno tveganje, kapitalska ustreznost

Title: Management Board Duties in Relation to Risk Management in a Public Limited Company

Abstract: In the first part of the article, the author categorises risks into legal and pure economic risks. Pure economic risks are further divided into project risks and risks that threaten a company's existence. From a legal point of view, such a categorisation of risks is the most important. At the same time, the author distinguishes the concept of risk from the concepts of uncertainty and danger. In particular, this part emphasises the duties of the management board in making investment decisions if there is a potential likelihood of a company’s insolvency. In the second part, the author then analyses in more detail the liquidity risk management and the risk of the horizontal capital structure, as well as the duties of the management board in this regard.

Keywords: public limited company, management board, risk management, liquidity risk, capital adequacy

Borka Jerman Blažič, Jan Stajnko, Tomaž Klobučar

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava aktualna vprašanja odstranjevanja ovir čezmejnega zbiranja elektronskih dokazov za učinkovitejše zatiranje tako splošne kot tudi kibernetske kriminalitete. Države pri poskusih omejevanja kibernetske kriminalitete naletijo na vrsto ovir zaradi nezadostnega razumevanja razsežnosti problematike pridobivanja čezmejnih elektronskih dokazov, zakonitosti pridobljenih podatkov in pravil o sodelovanju s ponudniki komunikacijskih storitev. Prispevek najprej kratko predstavi obstoječe pravne instrumente v EU s posebnim poudarkom na prizadevanjih za implementacijo Direktive 2014/41/EU, ki se nanaša na evropski preiskovalni nalog v kazenskih zadevah, ter postopek pridobivanja elektronskih dokazov po predlogu nove uredbe, ki ločeno ureja njihovo predložitev in zavarovanje. Nadalje je predstavljen nov model kategorizacije oblik in vrst podatkov, ki se nahajajo v komunikacijskem omrežju zunaj teritorija, kjer je kaznivo dejanje bilo izvršeno. Predstavljeni so tudi rezultati evropskega projekta LIVE_FOR, ki je bil namenjen povečevanju ozaveščenosti v pravni stroki o evropskem preiskovalnem nalogu. Avtorji zavzamejo stališče, da bi uporaba novega modela podatkov in novi postopki zbiranja elektronskih dokazov odstranili obstoječe ovire ter tako prispevali k večji učinkovitosti pravosodnega sistema.

Ključne besede: elektronski dokazi, digitalni dokazi, evropski preiskovalni nalog, evropsko kazensko pravo

Title: Advancement in Crime Investigation in a Closely Interconnected Society: Will the New and Updated EU Judicial Environment Remove the Barriers to Justice?

Abstract: This paper discusses the current issues and proposes legal remedies for removing the barriers to gathering cross-border electronic evidence for a more efficient fight against crime and cybercrime. Governments’ attempts to fight cybercrime face several barriers due to an inconsistent understanding of the problem in the search for cross-border e-evidence, the legality of the data being sought, and the rules for cooperation with communication service providers. The paper briefly presents the legal situation in the EU, the efforts related to the implementation of Directive 2014/41/EU, specifying the European Investigation Order in criminal matters, and the provision of legal procedures for cross-border e-evidence collection proposed by the new EU act for production and preservation orders. A new model of categorising the forms and types of data that reside on communication networks in a territory other than the location of the criminal act is presented as well. The results of the European project LIVE_FOR, intended to raise awareness of the European investigation order among legal professionals, are also presented. According to the authors, the application of the new data model and the new procedures for e-evidence collection promises to remove the current barriers and ensuires greater efficiency of the justice system.

Keywords: e-evidence, digital evidence, European investigation order, European criminal law

Vesna Rijavec, Tjaša Ivanc

Povzetek: Namen prispevka je analiza nove pravne ureditve inženirskih poklicev po ZAID, zlasti na področju geodezije. Ob celoviti obravnavi sprememb se avtorici opredelita tudi do vprašanja zaostritve pogojev za pridobitev in vzdrževanje statusa pooblaščenega inženirja. Težava je predvsem nova zahteva, da mora biti pooblaščeni geodet v delovnem razmerju za polni delovni čas, izjemoma za krajši delovni čas ali pa samostojni podjetnik z obsegom dela za polni delovni čas. Ni sicer dvoma, da je izhodišče zakonodaje pravilno, saj morajo geodeti zagotavljati visoke standarde pri pripravi podlag za spremembe prostorskih podatkov in njihovo evidentiranje, vendar je pri regulaciji poklica potrebna sorazmernost. Pooblaščeni geodeti namreč opravljajo geodetske storitve na trgu v različnih ekonomskih pogojih, zato je treba upoštevati, da strožji pogoji vplivajo na njihovo konkurenčnost. Za pravilnost evidenc v končni fazi skrbi država, to je GURS. Vprašanje je zato, ali so omejitve res potrebne zaradi javnega interesa in ali ne kršijo ustavne kategorije o svobodni gospodarski pobudi. Po novi zakonodaji je treba tudi primerno oblikovati stališča, katere dele geodetske storitve še lahko opravi geodet, ki nima statusa pooblaščenega geodeta, glede na zahtevo po osebnem opravljanju nalog pooblaščenega inženirja, ki so v ZAID zajete splošno in celovito. V prispevku je obravnavan tudi položaj geodetskih podjetij.

Ključne besede: pooblaščeni inženir geodezije, geodetska dejavnost, reforma geodetske stroke, regulacija poklica, geodetska podjetja, ZAID

Title: Reform of Engineering Professions in the Field of Geodesy

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the position of a “certified geodesy surveyor” according to the Architecture and Civil Engineering Act (ZAID), especially in the field of geodesy. In addition to a comprehensive discussion of the legislative changes, the authors also discuss the question of tightening the conditions for obtaining and maintaining the status of a certified surveyor. The problem is mainly in the new requirement that a certified surveyor must be employed full-time, only exceptionally part-time, or as a sole entrepreneur with a full-time job. There is no doubt that the aim of the new regulation is correct, as surveyors must ensure high standards in the preparation of bases for changes of spatial data and their recording; however, when regulating the profession, the principle of proportionality should be ensured. Namely, certified surveyors provide surveying services on the market in different economic conditions, so it must be borne in mind that stricter conditions affect their competitiveness. Ultimately, the state, i.e. the Surveying and Mapping Authority of Republic of Slovenia, takes care of the accuracy of records. The question is therefore whether the restrictions are really necessary for the public interest, and whether such restrictions violate the constitutional category of free economic initiative.
According to the new legislation, it is also necessary to formulate appropriate positions on the parts of the surveying service that can still be performed by a surveyor who does not have the status of a certified surveyor, given the requirement of personal performance of the duties of a certified engineer, which are covered generally and comprehensively by the Architecture and Civil Engineering Act. The article also discusses the position of surveying companies.

Keywords: certified surveyor engineer, surveying service, reform of surveying profession, regulation of the profession, surveying companies

Jana Simonič

Povzetek: Avtorica se v prispevku ukvarja s pridobivanjem lastnih delnic prek tretjih oseb. Družba praviloma ne sme pridobivati t. i. lastnih delnic. V slovenskem kot tudi v nemškem pravu velja načelna prepoved derivativne pridobitve lastnih delnic, ki izhaja iz dveh načel, in sicer iz načela prepovedi vračila vložkov in iz načela, da družba ne more postati sama svoj delničar. ZGD-1 prepoveduje pridobivanje lastnih delnic s pomočjo tretje osebe. Enaka prepoved, kot je določena za tretje osebe, je določena tudi za odvisno družbo in za družbo v večinski lasti. Tretja oseba lahko v skladu z ZGD-1 pridobiva delnice družbe za račun družbe le v obsegu in pod pogoji, ki veljajo za delniško družbo samo. Z novelirano ureditvijo ZGD-1 se je izenačila ureditev tudi po originalnem nemškem vzoru v Aktiengesetz. Tako ZGD-1 kot AktG pa sta usklajena z določbami Druge kapitalske direktive, ki so zajete v danes veljavni Direktivi 2017/1132 v zvezi s pridobitvijo lastnih delnic. Čeprav je ZGD-1 sledil ureditvi v AktG, pa so med njima pomembne razlike v zvezi s pridobivanjem in odsvajanjem lastnih delnic družbe. V zvezi s pridobivanjem lastnih delnic so razlike glede lastnih delnic, ki so ponujene v odkup delavcem, in glede zagotovitve ustrezne odpravnine delavcem. Nemško pravo je pri navedenih izjemah širše, pri izjemi pridobivanja lastnih delnic prek nakupne komisije pa je bolj specifično kot slovensko. Pri odsvajanju lastnih delnic sta si primerjani uredit-vi precej enotni. Tako nemško kot slovensko pravo vsebujeta določbe, ki poskušajo preprečiti kršitve v zvezi s pridobivanjem lastnih delnic. Pomembne razlike so predvsem pri uveljavljanju družbeniške tožbe in odškodninskega zahtevka.

Ključne besede: lastne delnice, pridobivanje lastnih delnic prek tretjih oseb, družbeniška tožba, 251. in 247. člen ZGD-1, par. 71a in 71d AktG

Title: Acquisition of Own Shares with the Help of a Third Party in Slovenian and German Law

Abstract:The author discusses the acquisition of own shares with the help of a third party. As a rule, a company should not acquire so-called own shares. Neither Slovenian nor German law prohibits the derivative acquisition of own shares, based on two principles, namely, the principle of prohibition of the return of contributions and the principle of the company not being entitled to become its own shareholder. The Companies Act (ZGD-1) prohibits the acquisition of own shares with the help of a third party. The same prohibition as for third parties is also defined for subsidiaries and for majority-owned companies. In accordance with the Companies Act, a third party may acquire shares of the company on the account of the company only to the extent and under the conditions applicable to the public limited company. With the revised regulation of the Companies Act, the rule was made identical to the original German model in Aktiengesetz. In regard to the acquisition of own shares, both the Companies Act and AktG are in line with the provisions of the Second Capital Directive, which are now included in the 2017/1132 Directive. Despite the fact that the Companies Act followed the regulation in the German AktG, there are some important differences in the acquisition and disposal of the company’s own shares. In regard to the acquisition of own shares, there are differences in own shares offered for redemption to employees and in providing adequate compensation to employees. In the case of these exceptions, German law is broader; however, in the exception of the acquisition of own shares through a commission, it is more specific than Slovenian law. When disposing of own shares, the compared rules are quite uniform. Both German and Slovenian law contain provisions that seek to prevent violations in connection with the acquisition of own shares. Significant differences occur especially in the exercise of a direct shareholder lawsuit and damage claims.

Keywords: own shares, acquisition of own shares through third parties, direct shareholder lawsuit, Articles 251 and 247 of the Companies Act, par. 71a and 71d of AktG

Hajdeja Iglič

Povzetek: Članek primerja sodbe španskega, hrvaškega in slovenskega vrhovnega sodišča glede nepoštenosti pogoja o vračanju kredita v tuji valuti v potrošniških pogodbah. Podrobneje nas zanima, kako so sodišča držav članic v postopku ocenjevanja dejstev uporabila merila za ugotavljanje izpolnjevanja pojasnilne dolžnosti, ki jih je razvilo Sodišče EU z namenom zagotavljanja visokega standarda varstva potrošnikov, kot ga opredeljuje 38. člen Listine EU o temeljnih pravicah. Takšna primerjava je praktično relevantna v luči sodnih postopkov o kreditih v švicarskih frankih, ki trenutno v velikem številu potekajo pred nacionalnimi sodišči. Hkrati je pomembna z vidika širšega cilja enotne uporabe prava Unije, ker omogoča vpogled v uporabo evropskega prava na področju, ki je v Sloveniji relativno nerazvito in na katerem obstaja velik razkorak med normo in prakso, saj zadeva ob moč sodobnih finančnih korporacij in njihov središčni položaj v preseku gospodarskih in državnih (administrativno-politično-sodnih) omrežij.

Ključne besede: pravo Evropske unije, nepošteni pogodbeni pogoji, krediti v švicarskih frankih, primerjalna analiza

Title: (Non)Uniform Application of EU law? A Comparative View on the Application of the Requirement for Transparency of Contract Terms

Abstract: The article compares the judgments of the Spanish, Croatian and Slovenian Supreme Courts regarding unfair terms in consumer contracts, which define the obligation to repay the loan in a foreign currency. We are particularly interested in how the supreme courts of various Member States applied the criteria developed by the Court of Justice of the European Union to assess whether banks provided consumers with sufficient information to allow them to conclude a contract with full knowledge, in compliance with the high standard of consumer protection as defined in Article 38 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Such a comparison is highly relevant in light of the Swiss franc loans proceedings currently taking place before national courts. At the same time, it is important from the point of view of the broader goal of uniform application of the Union law, because it provides insight into the application of the European law in an area that is relatively underdeveloped in Slovenia, and which has a large gap between the norm and practice, since it concerns the power of modern financial corporations and their central position at the intersection of economic and state (administrative-political-judicial) networks.

Keywords: European Union law, unfair contract terms, Swiss franc loans, comparative analysis

Kevin Rihtar

Povzetek: Protidopinška pravila so avtonomna pravila, povezana s snovmi in postopki, prepovedanimi v športu. V veliki meri so bila sprejeta pod okriljem Svetovne protidopinške agencije in bila na različne nomotehnične načine zrcaljena v nacionalna pravila, ki jih izvajajo nacionalne protidopinške organizacije. Doping, upoštevajoč poenostavljeno definicijo, pomeni uporabo prepovedanih snovi in postopkov z namenom izboljšanja sposobnosti športnika, kot takšen pa je v nasprotju s šport-nim duhom. Dopinga seveda ni enostavno odkrivati in preprečevati, četudi so se k temu na takšen ali drugačen način zavezale skoraj vse države sveta, moderne prakse uporabe prepovedanih snovi pa so pogosto korak pred prizadevanji za kontrolo dopinga. Konsenz glede dejstva, da doping nasprotuje javnemu interesu in škodi javnemu zdravju, je posledično privedel do strogih in za športnika precej invazivnih protidopinških pravil. Ta posegajo predvsem na področje športnikove zasebnosti in njegovih osebnih podatkov. Upoštevajoč obseg svetovne populacije, ki jo zavezujejo protidopinška pravila, resnost posega v temeljne človekove pravice ter standard regulacije varstva osebnih podatkov na eni strani in pomen preprečevanja dopinga na drugi strani, je analiza sorazmernosti in upravičenosti posega težavna, vendar zato nič manj potrebna.

Ključne besede: doping, varstvo zasebnosti, GDPR, WADA, varstvo osebnih podatkov

Title: Anti-Doping Rules in Light of Protection of Privacy and Private Data

Abstract: Anti-doping rules represent autonomous rules in relation to substances and procedures that are prohibited in sports. These rules are mostly adopted by the World Anti-Doping Agency and, using different legislative approaches, mirrored in national rules enforced by national anti-doping organisations. Doping, defined in a simplistic manner, means the use of prohibited substances and/or procedures with the aim of improving an athlete’s performance, and is as such contrary to the spirit of sports. Doping is not discovered, traced or prevented easily, since contemporary doping practises are often a step ahead of doping control, even though almost every country in the world supports the battle against doping. The consensus that doping is contrary to the public interest and public health led to strict and quite invasive anti-doping rules for athletes. The latter interfere mostly with the athletes’ right to privacy and protection of their personal data. Considering the wide applicability of the anti-doping rules across the globe, the severity of the infringement of human rights and the standard of data protection on one hand, and the importance of anti-doping activities on the other hand, the analysis of proportionality and justification of such measures seems difficult, but must nevertheless be performed.

Keywords: doping, right to privacy, GDPR, WADA, data protection

Vesna Kranjc

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Boštjan Koritnik

Avtoriteta pravnega založništva in publicistike Vida Šibenik je svojo poklicno pot začela na Dopisni delavski univerzi v Ljubljani, v sedemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, v časih, ko so bile potrebe po dodatnem stalnem strokovnem usposabljanju, pridobivanju novega znanja in strokovni literatur

 
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