Arhiv člankov Arhiv člankov
English version
 
PRELISTAJ

letnik 2017, številka 6-7, 1. 10. 2017
> Kazalo

NA NASLOVNICI

Koncepti varovanja odvisnih družb pri dejanskih in pogodbenih koncernih

Marijan Kocbek

Povzetek: V prispevku avtor obravnava različne koncepte varovanja manjšinskih delničarjev in upnikov odvisnih družb pri dejanskih in pogodbenih koncernih. Pri pogodbenem koncernu je zagotovljeno vnaprejšnje varovanje v trenutku sklenitve pogodbe o obvladovanju. Pri dejanskem koncernu pa so prek koncernskega privilegija škodljiva navodila sicer dopuščena pod pogojem, da se prikrajšanje odvisne družbe ustrezno nadomesti. Avtor v tej zvezi obravnava pravne instrumente takšne zagotovitve nadomestitve teh prikrajšanj. Posebno pozornost namenja vprašanju dajanja posojil, poroštev, zastav in drugih oblik zagotovitve zavarovanj kot oblik finančnega izčrpavanja odvisnih družb v dejanskem koncernu. Take transakcije so prepovedane, če se z njimi poseže v zakonska pravila o ohranjanju kapitala, kar velja tako za delniške družbe kot tudi za družbe z omejeno odgovornostjo.

Ključne besede: koncern, pogodbeni koncern, dejanski koncern, pogodba o obvladovanju, obvladujoča družba, odvisna družba

Title: Concepts of Protection of Dependent Companies in Factual or Contractual Concerns

Abstract: The article discusses various concepts of protection of minority shareholders and creditors of dependent companies in an actual concern or a contractual concern. In the case of a contractual concern, the protection is provided in advance at the time of conclusion of the controlling contract. In the case of an actual concern, a detrimental instruction is permitted within the framework of the concern privilege, provided that the deprivation of the dependent company is adequately compensated. The author deals with the legal instruments that are available to ensure the compensation of the deprivation. Special attention is given to the issue of loan giving, suretyships and other forms of payment guarantees as means of financial exhaustion of dependent companies in an actual concern. Such transactions are prohibited if they interfere with the rules of the Companies Act (ZGD-1) on the preservation of capital, which applies both to public limited companies and to limited liability companies.

Key words: concern, contractual concern, actual concern, controlling contract, controlling company, dependent company

Pravni in ekonomski učinki brexita na zasebno pravo

Verica Trstenjak

Povzetek: Avtorica v prispevku obravnava izstop Združenega kraljestva iz Evropske unije. V prvem delu so obravnavani postopek izstopa in možnosti, ki jih ima Združeno kraljestvo. Med temi so navedeni norveški in švicarski model, tako imenovani model carinske unije, model prostega trgovinskega sporazuma in model WTO. V nadaljevanju je obravnavan vpliv brexita na različna področja zasebnega prava, posebej na potrošniško pravo, ter s tem povečan vpliv na pogodbeno pravo in pravice pri online pogodbah, v letalskem prometu ter glede dajatev gostovanja pri mobilni telefoniji. Omenjen je tudi vpliv na pravo družb in na mednarodno zasebno pravo. V okviru slednjega je opozorjeno zlasti na probleme po izstopu Združenega kraljestva na področju pristojnosti, glede priznanja in izvršitve odločb ter uporabe prava.

Ključne besede: brexit, izstop, Združeno kraljestvo, Evropska unija, potrošniško pravo, zasebno pravo, pogodbeno pravo, pravo družb, pristojnost, priznanje odločb

Title: Legal and Economic Implications of Brexit for Private Law

Abstract: The article discusses the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. The first part of the article deals with the exit procedure and the available options for the United Kingdom. These options include the Norwegian, the Swiss model, the customs union model, the model of free trade agreement and the WTO model. The article then analyses the impact of Brexit on various areas of private law, in particular consumer law, and thus an increased impact on contract law and rights in online contracts, air passenger rights, and mobile phone and roaming. The article also briefly deals with the impact of Brexit on company law and private international law. In the context of the latter, the issues concerning jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of judgments and the application of law are underlined.

Key words: Brexit, withdrawal, United Kingdom, European Union, consumer law, private law, contract law, company law, jurisdiction, recognition of judgments

Pravice in obveznosti nadzornega inženirja do naročnika in izvajalca gradnje

Vesna Kranjc

Povzetek: Nadzorni inženir ima pomembno vlogo pri gradnji, a se pri tem odpira vrsta pravnih vprašanj. Pogodba o nadzoru pri gradnji ni urejena kot poseben pogodbeni tip, podrejena je pravilom mandatne pogodbe. Članek obravnava različna vprašanja o obveznostih in upravičenjih nadzornega inženirja. Avtorica poudarja razliko pri ureditvi med Obligacijskim zakonikom in Rdečo knjigo FIDIC.

Ključne besede: pogodba o nadzoru pri gradnji, gradbena pogodba, nadzorni inženir, naročnik gradnje, izvajalec gradnje, Rdeča knjiga FIDIC

Title: Rights and Obligations of Engineer in Relation to the Client and Construction Contractor

Abstract: An engineer or building surveyor plays an important role during construction, but his legal position is not clear. A contract on supervision of works is not governed by specific statutory provisions. The article initially points out that the contract on supervision of works is a type of the mandate contract. The article deals with the different questions of engineer''s duties and authority. The author points out the different regulations of the issues, comparing the Slovenian Code of Obligations and FIDIC Red Book.

Key words: contract to supervision of works, construction contract, engineer, building surveyor, client, employer, contractor, FIDIC Red Book

Vpliv informacijske tehnologije na delovna razmerja

Darja Senčur Peček

Povzetek: Množična uporaba mobilnih informacijsko-komunikacijskih naprav (prenosnih računalnikov, tablic, mobilnih telefonov) v zvezi z delom delavcem omogoča, da delo opravljajo kjerkoli in kadarkoli. V prispevku so obravnavana vprašanja, ki se v okviru tega nanašajo na opredelitev delovnega časa delavcev ter na zagotavljanje varnosti in zdravja pri delu. Avtorica ugotavlja, da delodajalci z zahtevo po stalni dosegljivosti delavcev posegajo v njihov prosti čas, saj se v delovni čas všteva samo obdobje dejanskega dela zunaj delovnega mesta z uporabo IK-tehnologije. Psihosocialna tveganja (ki vključujejo stalno dosegljivost) so poleg ergonomskih tveganj najpomembnejši izziv glede varnega in zdravega dela z mobilnimi informacijsko-komunikacijskimi napravami.

Ključne besede: digitalizacija, informacijska tehnologija, delovno razmerje, delovni čas, stalna dosegljivost, varnost in zdravje pri delu

Title: Impact of Information Technology on Employment Relationships

Abstract: The widespread use of mobile information and communication devices (laptops, tablets, mobile phones) in connection with work allows employees to perform their work anywhere and anytime. The article addresses issues related to the definition of employees'' working time and to the safety and health at work. The author concluded that by requesting a constant availability, the employers are interfering with their employees'' leisure time because only the time when the employee is actually performing work outside the workplace by way of information and communication technology is considered a working time. Psychosocial risks (which include constant availability) are, in addition to ergonomic risks, the most important challenge related to safe and healthy work with mobile information and communication devices.

Key words: digitalisation, information technology, employment relationship, working time, constant availability, safety and health at work

Urejanje medsebojnih razmerij etažnih lastnikov de lege ferenda

Miha Juhart

Povzetek: Pravno razmerje etažne lastnine je sestavljeno pravno razmerje, v katerem se prepletajo stvarnopravni in obligacijskopravni elementi. V veljavnem pravu je to razmerje urejeno v Stvarnopravnem zakoniku, Stanovanjskem zakonu in Zakonu o vzpostavitvi etažne lastnine. Zadnji je prehodne narave, saj se nanaša na uskladitev neurejenih razmerij iz preteklosti. Pravna pravila v Stvarnopravnem zakoniku in Stanovanjskem zakonu pa se podvajajo oziroma včasih prihajajo v vsebinska nasprotja. Avtor opozarja predvsem na problem obvezne pogodbe o medsebojnih razmerjih med etažnimi lastniki. Zavzema se za spremembo koncepta, ki naj to pogodbo določi kot dispozitivno. Zakonska ureditev pa naj celovito uredi medsebojna razmerja in dopusti odmike, če je takšna volja etažnih lastnikov.

Ključne besede: etažna lastnina, pogodba o medsebojnih razmerjih, stanovanjski zakon, stvarnopravni zakonik

Title: Regulating Mutual Relationships of Strata-Title Holders de lege ferenda

Abstract: The legal relationship of strata-title ownership consists of two elements: property and community among the apartments owner. In the current law, this relationship is regulated by the Property Code, the Housing Act and the Act on the Acquisition of the Strata Title of a Part of a Building. The latter is of a transitory nature, as it refers to the reconciliation of unsettled relations from the past. The legal rules in the Property Code and the Housing Act duplicate or sometimes come into substantive conflicts. The author primarily draws attention to the problem of a compulsory contract on mutual relationships among apartment owners. The author advocates a change of the concept, which should define this contract as dispositive. However, the statutory arrangement should regulate mutual relationships and allow special provisions and rules based on the expressed will of the owners.

Key words: strata-title ownership, contract on mutual relationships among apartment owners, Property Code, Housing Act

VSEBINA

stran 933 Marijan Kocbek Koncepti varovanja odvisnih družb pri dejanskih in pogodbenih koncernih Concepts of Protection of Dependent Companies in Factual or Contractual Concerns stran 949 Peter Podgorelec Odškodninski zahtevki odvisn

Marijan Kocbek

Povzetek: V prispevku avtor obravnava različne koncepte varovanja manjšinskih delničarjev in upnikov odvisnih družb pri dejanskih in pogodbenih koncernih. Pri pogodbenem koncernu je zagotovljeno vnaprejšnje varovanje v trenutku sklenitve pogodbe o obvladovanju. Pri dejanskem koncernu pa so prek koncernskega privilegija škodljiva navodila sicer dopuščena pod pogojem, da se prikrajšanje odvisne družbe ustrezno nadomesti. Avtor v tej zvezi obravnava pravne instrumente takšne zagotovitve nadomestitve teh prikrajšanj. Posebno pozornost namenja vprašanju dajanja posojil, poroštev, zastav in drugih oblik zagotovitve zavarovanj kot oblik finančnega izčrpavanja odvisnih družb v dejanskem koncernu. Take transakcije so prepovedane, če se z njimi poseže v zakonska pravila o ohranjanju kapitala, kar velja tako za delniške družbe kot tudi za družbe z omejeno odgovornostjo.

Ključne besede: koncern, pogodbeni koncern, dejanski koncern, pogodba o obvladovanju, obvladujoča družba, odvisna družba

Title: Concepts of Protection of Dependent Companies in Factual or Contractual Concerns

Abstract: The article discusses various concepts of protection of minority shareholders and creditors of dependent companies in an actual concern or a contractual concern. In the case of a contractual concern, the protection is provided in advance at the time of conclusion of the controlling contract. In the case of an actual concern, a detrimental instruction is permitted within the framework of the concern privilege, provided that the deprivation of the dependent company is adequately compensated. The author deals with the legal instruments that are available to ensure the compensation of the deprivation. Special attention is given to the issue of loan giving, suretyships and other forms of payment guarantees as means of financial exhaustion of dependent companies in an actual concern. Such transactions are prohibited if they interfere with the rules of the Companies Act (ZGD-1) on the preservation of capital, which applies both to public limited companies and to limited liability companies.

Key words: concern, contractual concern, actual concern, controlling contract, controlling company, dependent company

Peter Podgorelec

Povzetek: Avtor v prispevku obravnava odškodninsko odgovornost zaradi "finančnih izčrpavanj" odvisnih družb in uveljavljanje z njo povezanih zahtevkov po pravilih koncernskega prava iz IV. dela Zakona o gospodarskih družbah (ZGD-1). Ugotavlja, da so ta pravila do odgovornih oseb strožja kot splošna pravila, olajšujejo pa tudi uveljavljanje odškodninskih zahtevkov upravičencev. To je v skladu s konceptom koncernskega prava, ki je predvsem varovalno pravo. Avtor odgovarja na nekatera odprta vprašanja v zvezi z uveljavljanjem odškodninskih zahtevkov, posebej pa omeni tudi dolžnosti članov organov vodenja ali nadzora odvisne družbe.

Ključne besede: koncernsko pravo, odškodninska odgovornost, uveljavljanje zahtevkov, odvisna družba, delničarji/družbeniki

Title: Damage Claims of Controlled Companies and Shareholders due to Harmful Orders and »Financial Attrition«

Abstract: In this article, the author discusses the damage liability due to "financial attrition" of controlled companies and implementation of associated claims under the rules of corporate group law from Part IV of the Companies Act (ZGD-1). The author concludes that these rules are stricter for responsible persons than what follows from general rules; it is also easier to implement damage claims of beneficiaries. This is in accordance with the concept of corporate group law, which is principally a protective law. The author answers some open questions regarding the implementation of claims, while emphasising particularly the obligations of the organs of a controlled company.

Key words: corporate group law, damage liability, implementation of claims, controlled company, shareholders

Saša Prelič

Povzetek: V poslovni praksi delovanja gospodarskih subjektov prihaja do različnih oblik njihovega povezovanja in medsebojnega prepletanja. Pri tem gre za uporabo različnih pravnih institutov in različnih pravnih tehnik. Pravo gospodarskih družb take institute omogoča, hkrati pa vzpostavlja sistem zaščite imetnikov deležev pred tveganji poslabšanja njihovega pravnega položaja.

Ključne besede: združitev, varovanje imetnikov deležev, denarna odpravnina, informacijske pravice

Title: Shareholders’ Interest Protection in Business Integrations (Mergers and Amalgamations)

Abstract: Business entities enter different interactions in the course of their business operations, i.e. amalgamations or mergers. The legal framework provides for different legal figures and techniques. The company law not only ensures such legal paths, but also develops a system of rules for shareholders' protection in order to ensure preservation of their legal positions. Key words: merger, protection of shareholders, appraisal remedy, information rights

Borut Bratina, Andreja Primec

Povzetek: Člani organov vodenja in nadzora morajo skupno zagotavljati, da so letna poročila (računovodski del in poslovno poročilo) z vsemi sestavnimi deli, vključno z izjavo o upravljanju družbe in izjavo o nefinančnem poslovanju, skladna z zakonodajo in računovodskimi standardi. Vsi člani poslovodstva družbe morajo to potrditi s svojim podpisom pod letnim poročilom in njegovimi sestavnimi deli (60.a člen ZGD-1). Najnovejši noveli ZGD-1I in ZGD-1J sta v skladu z zakonodajo Evropske unije prinesli novosti pri vsebini in sestavnih delih ter prilogah poslovnega poročila. Gre za izjavo o upravljanju, izjavo o nefinančnem poslovanju in poročilo o razmerjih s povezanimi družbami. Pomembno se je povečala tudi vloga revizorja, ki mora obe izjavi in priloge pregledati ter podati svoje ugotovitve. Cilj teh novosti je povečati družbeno odgovorno upravljanje gospodarskih družb.

Ključne besede: korporativno upravljanje, korporativna družbena odgovornost, poslovno poročilo, izjava o upravljanju, izjava o nefinančnem poslovanju

Title: Preparing of Business Reports, Corporate Government Statements and Non-Financial Statements of Consolidated Annual Reports and Annual Reports of Individual Companies

Abstract: Members of a company''s management and control bodies shall jointly ensure that annual reports (accounting part and business report) with all component parts, including the corporate governance statement and non-financial statement, are in accordance with legislation and accounting standards. All members of a company''s management body shall confirm this by signing the annual report and the component parts (Article 60a of the Companies Act - ZGD-1). The last amendments of the Companies Act - ZGD-1I and ZGD-1J - have introduced new developments into the content, the component parts and appendices of business reports in accordance with the legislation of the European Union. These are the corporate governance statement, non-financial statement and report about the relationships with controlling companies. The role of an auditor has also increased significantly. The auditor has to review both statements and appendices, and present his findings. The goal of these new developments is to increase socially responsible governance of companies.

Key words: corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, business report, corporate governance statement, non-financial statement

Janez Čebulj

Povzetek: Avtor se v prispevku ukvarja z vprašanji, povezanimi z udeležbo javnosti in stransko udeležbo v okoljevarstvenih postopkih izdajanja dovoljenj za poseg v okolje. V prvem delu na splošno opredeli ustavnopravne zahteve za uresničevanje pravice do stranske udeležbe kot dela pravice do enakega varstva pravic iz 22. člena Ustave. V drugem delu prispevka obravnava specifične zahteve glede sodelovanja javnosti in stranske udeležbe v postopkih izdajanja dovoljenj za posege v okolje. Zadnji del prispevka je namenjen poglavitnim predlogom novega zakona o varstvu okolja, s katerimi bo uzakonjen način uresničevanja pravice do enakega varstva pravic na obravnavanem področju.

Ključne besede: varstvo okolja, okoljevarstveni postopki, sodelovanje javnosti, stranska udeležba, pravica do enakega varstva pravic

Title: Public and Third-Party Participation in Environmental Protection Procedures

Abstract: In the paper, the author discusses the questions regarding the realisation of one of basic human rights, namely the right to equal protection of rights, in legal proceedings on rights, obligations and legal entitlements of individuals and other persons in accordance with Article 22 of the Constitution in environmental protection procedures. The first part summarises the positions that are included in the Constitutional Court''s rulings. The next part presents the requirements of EU law. In the final part of the paper, the author addresses issues related to the envisaged conditions, which represent the manner of implementing Article 22 of the Constitution on environmental procedures.

Key words: environmental protection, administrative procedures, equal protection of rights, participation, legal entitlement

Polonca Kovač

Povzetek: Položaj stranke v upravnem postopku in vključevanje prizadetih sta ključni vprašanji za demokratičnost oblasti. Prispevek obravnava izbrane vidike s temi vprašanji povezanih institutov v splošni upravnoprocesni regulaciji, s poudarkom na posebnostih davčnih in inšpekcijskih postopkov. Pri tem se analizirajo teoretična in normativna izhodišča ter novejša praksa oziroma skozi podane sodne primere izpostavljene dileme, ki se nanašajo na status stranskega udeleženca. Glede na temeljni cilj davčnih in inšpekcijskih postopkov, ki so pretežno nadzorne narave in usmerjeni v varstvo javnega interesa ter večinoma posegajo v pravni položaj strank, je opozorjeno na pomen načela sorazmernosti. To pomeni, da je treba pooblastila uradnih oseb, ki te postopke vodijo, in pravice vseh prizadetih oseb ustrezno uravnotežiti, da se zadosti tako ustavnim garancijam slednjih kot učinkovitosti namena postopka. V prispevku se obravnava in kritično ovrednoti praksa iz upravnega spora in primerov izpred Ustavnega sodišča RS, ki v zadnjih letih razlagajo zadevna vprašanja, zlasti v davčni ali gradbeni inšpekciji. Analiza pokaže, da se pravice stranskih udeležencev neredko bodisi pretirano široko tolmačijo bodisi preveč ožijo, tako da se te osebe kljub izkazu prizadetosti pravnega interesa v celoti izključujejo iz postopka. Sklepno se predlaga sistemsko uravnoteženo razlaganje intervenience od primera do primera, ki bi vodilo v bolj enako varstvo pravic ter večjo predvidljivost in učinkovitost upravnih postopkov.

Ključne besede: položaj stranke v upravnem postopku, stranski udeleženec, enako varstvo pravic, sorazmernost, davčni in inšpekcijski postopki, sodna praksa

Title: Parties’ Inclusion between Theory and Practice of Administrative Procedure (with Emphasis on Tax and Inspection Procedures)

Abstract: The position of a party in administrative procedure and inclusion of all affected persons are key issues of democratic authority. This article tackles crucial related aspects in the general administrative procedure law, with an emphasis on specifics of tax and inspection procedures. Theoretical and normative grounds and case law are analysed through highlighted questions regarding the status of accessory participants. Owing to the basic goal of tax and inspection procedures, which are mostly of a supervisory nature and thus initiated ex officio to protect public interest and establishing burden to parties, a principle of proportionality is emphasised. This means that protection of public interest needs to be balanced with simultaneous protection of all affected parties'' rights to meet their constitutional guarantees and still achieve the procedure''s purpose. Selected cases in administrative dispute and of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia from recent years are analysed and critically assessed, particularly when addressing tax and construction inspection. The courts seem to often interpret accessory participants'' rights too broadly, while in some cases respective persons are totally excluded from the proceedings despite their legal interest. In summary, a systemically balanced interpretation of accessory participation is proposed, based on case-by-case assessment, which would lead to a more equal protection of rights, higher predictability and efficiency of administrative procedures.

Key words: party''s position in administrative procedure, accessory participant, equal protection of rights, proportionality, tax and inspection procedures, case law

Erik Kerševan

Povzetek: Razprava kaže, da je treba opozoriti na nekatere posebnosti, ki izvirajo iz narave upravnih postopkov. Navedeno pa v povezavi s pravico stranke do predlaganja dokazov vodi do sklepa, da ima uradna oseba poleg možnosti zavrnitve navedenih predlogov iz razlogov, ki jih sicer poznajo procesne ureditve sodnih postopkov (ker je dokaz nerelevanten, neprimeren ali nepotreben), v upravnem postopku možnost zavrniti dokazni predlog tudi na podlagi vnaprejšnje dokazne ocene. S tem pa po tu zastopanem mnenju glede na specifičnosti upravnega postopka tudi ni poseženo v pravice stranke do poštenega postopka, saj je njene dokazne predloge upravni organ dolžan skrbno presoditi in se do njih ustrezno opredeliti, tak zaključek postopka dokazovanja pa z vidika procesnih značilnosti upravnega postopka tudi ne vzpostavlja neenakosti strank postopka v njihovem medsebojnem razmerju.

Ključne besede: upravni postopek, dokazni predlog, vnaprejšnja dokazna ocena, pravica do poštenega postopka

Title: Application to Take Evidence in General and Special Administrative Procedures

Abstract: The present discussion shows that specific procedural rules derived from the nature of administrative proceedings have to be emphasised. In regard to the right of parties to these proceedings to present evidence, it shows that the official person in charge of administrative procedure has to be able to deny the applications to take evidence not only based on the reasons that are used in judicial procedures (because the evidence is irrelevant, unsuitable or unnecessary), but also based on the anticipated assessment of evidence. In the presented opinion, considering the specific characteristics of administrative decision-making, this does not violate the right of parties to a fair procedure. The application must be duly evaluated and the administrative body has to give reasons for the denial of refusal to take evidence in the procedure. Such a rule for the establishment of facts in administrative procedure also does not cause inequality of parties in their respective positions.

Key words: administrative procedure, application to take evidence, anticipated assessment of evidence, right to a fair procedure

Marko Pavliha

Povzetek: Prispevek je zasnovan kot uvod k okrogli mizi Terorizem - ali bomo spremenili svoje življenjske navade, na kateri bomo razpravljali o opredelitvah in vzrokih terorizma, pravnih okvirih boja zoper terorizem, islamističnem terorizmu, dejavnikih, ki vplivajo na terorizem, in terorističnih napadih v prometu. Poglavitno vprašanje je, ali se bodo zaradi terorizma spremenile naše življenjske navade oziroma ali bomo pripravljeni dopuščati večje posege v človekove pravice in bo v razmerju med svobodo in varnostjo zmagovala slednja.

Ključne besede: terorizem, interdisciplinarnost, pravo, islamistični terorizem, vplivni dejavniki, varnost, svoboda, človekove pravice, promet

Title: The Horrible Monster of Terrorism: Premises for Consideration

Abstract: The article is written as an introduction to the round table Terrorism - Are We Going to Change Our Habits, where we will discuss definitions and reasons for terrorism, the legal framework of counter-terrorism, Islamic terrorism, impact factors and terrorism attacks in transport. The key question is whether we shall change our lifestyle because of terrorism, and, furthermore, if we are prepared to tolerate more interference with human rights, with security prevailing over freedom.

Key words: terrorism, interdisciplinarity, law, Islamic terrorism, impact factors, security, freedom, human rights, transport

Patrick Vlačič

Povzetek: Terorizem je imel v prejšnjem in ima še v tem stoletju močan vpliv na številna področja in tudi na prevoz oziroma promet. Prevoz je priljubljena tarča teroristov, bodisi da je prevozno sredstvo uporabljeno kot sredstvo za teroristični napad, bodisi da je napad izveden na prevozno infrastrukturo ali da je napad izveden na množice, ki jih ustvarja prevoz. V prevozu se zaradi tega pojavljajo vedno nove zahteve po varovanju. Te vplivajo na posege v temeljne človekove pravice. Ljudje smo pripravljeni v imenu varnosti v prevozu dopuščati vse večje posege. Eden takih hudih posegov je uvedba telesnih skenerjev na letališčih. Posegi v temeljne človekove pravice v imenu zagotavljanja varnosti v prevozu se bodo gotovo nadaljevali, čeprav je jasno, da to ni rešitev.

Ključne besede: prevoz, terorizem, človekove pravice, telesni skener, varovanje v letalstvu

Title: Terrorism and Transport

Abstract: In addition to many other areas in the previous and current century, terrorism has had a strong impact on transport or traffic. Transport is a popular target for terrorists, either by transport means used to execute a terrorist attack, transport as the target of a terrorist attack, or crowds generated by transport means as the focus of a terrorist attack. As a result, there are always new security requirements in transport. These affect interference with basic human rights. We are ready to tolerate more and more interferences with human rights in the name of transport safety. One of such serious interferences is the introduction of body scanners at airports. Interferences with human rights in the name of ensuring transport safety will surely continue, even though it is clear that this is not the solution.

Key words: transport, terrorism, human rights, body scanner, security in aviation

Gorazd Meško

Povzetek: Kriminološke teorije, zbiranje podatkov in metodološki pristopi, ki se uporabljajo v kriminološkem raziskovanju, so uporabni tudi za raziskovanje terorizma; uporaba kriminoloških metod pri preučevanju terorizma bi omogočila pridobitev novih znanj o problematiki, predvsem na področju vzrokov in posledic terorizma. Kriminologi se v preteklosti niso poglobljeno ukvarjali s problemom terorizma, čeprav se kriminologija kot veda primarno osredotoča na preučevanje nastajanja (in spreminjanja) kazenskih zakonov ter razumevanje pojavnih oblik in vzrokov kriminalitete ter odzivov na tovrstne kršitve zakonov. V kriminološkem raziskovanju bi zaradi ekstremnih oblik nasilja, viktimizacij, ustvarjanja strahu in kriminalitetnopolitičnih odzivov pomemben položaj moral imeti tudi terorizem. Teroristična dejanja vplivajo na zaznave varnosti, ogroženosti in odzive države na potencialne teroriste kot pojav nove varnostne mentalitete, ki se kaže v sekuritizaciji.

Ključne besede: terorizem, kriminologija, viktimologija, kriminalitetna politika

Title: Study of Terrorism and Criminality - Criminological, Victimological, and Criminal Policy Perspective

Abstract: Criminological theory, data collection and methodological approaches used in criminological studies can also be applied in research on terrorism. The use of criminological methods in studying terrorism would allow for the acquisition of new knowledge, in particular in the area of causes, patterns and consequences of terrorism. Criminologists in the past did not conduct in-depth studies of terrorism, even though criminology as a discipline primarily focuses on the study of formation (and changing) of criminal laws, understanding of the manifestations and the causes of crime, and reactions to such violations of the law. Terrorism should have an important place in criminological research due to its characteristics - extreme forms of violence, victimisations, creating fear (individual and collective) and criminal policy responses. Acts of terrorism affect the perception of security, vulnerability, responses of the state to potential terrorists, as well as the new security mentality, which is reflected in securitisation.

Key words: terrorism, criminology, victimology, crime control policy

Verica Trstenjak

Povzetek: Avtorica v prispevku obravnava izstop Združenega kraljestva iz Evropske unije. V prvem delu so obravnavani postopek izstopa in možnosti, ki jih ima Združeno kraljestvo. Med temi so navedeni norveški in švicarski model, tako imenovani model carinske unije, model prostega trgovinskega sporazuma in model WTO. V nadaljevanju je obravnavan vpliv brexita na različna področja zasebnega prava, posebej na potrošniško pravo, ter s tem povečan vpliv na pogodbeno pravo in pravice pri online pogodbah, v letalskem prometu ter glede dajatev gostovanja pri mobilni telefoniji. Omenjen je tudi vpliv na pravo družb in na mednarodno zasebno pravo. V okviru slednjega je opozorjeno zlasti na probleme po izstopu Združenega kraljestva na področju pristojnosti, glede priznanja in izvršitve odločb ter uporabe prava.

Ključne besede: brexit, izstop, Združeno kraljestvo, Evropska unija, potrošniško pravo, zasebno pravo, pogodbeno pravo, pravo družb, pristojnost, priznanje odločb

Title: Legal and Economic Implications of Brexit for Private Law

Abstract: The article discusses the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. The first part of the article deals with the exit procedure and the available options for the United Kingdom. These options include the Norwegian, the Swiss model, the customs union model, the model of free trade agreement and the WTO model. The article then analyses the impact of Brexit on various areas of private law, in particular consumer law, and thus an increased impact on contract law and rights in online contracts, air passenger rights, and mobile phone and roaming. The article also briefly deals with the impact of Brexit on company law and private international law. In the context of the latter, the issues concerning jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of judgments and the application of law are underlined.

Key words: Brexit, withdrawal, United Kingdom, European Union, consumer law, private law, contract law, company law, jurisdiction, recognition of judgments

Peter Grilc

Povzetek: Članek obravnava vrsto posledic, ki bi jih prinesel izstop članice EU, zlasti na primeru brexita. Razpravlja o splošnih vplivih na nastanek in izvrševanje komunitarnega prava, o modelih ekonomske integracije, posebej pa analizira posamezna pravna področja, pri čemer se osredotoča na gospodarskopravne teme. Ta področja so civilno pravo, delovanje finančnih trgov, korporacijsko pravo in gospodarsko pravo v širšem smislu, insolvenca, intelektualna lastnina, kazensko pravo, konkurenčno pravo, priznanje in izvršitev odločb, prost pretok blaga in prost pretok oseb.

Ključne besede: Bela knjiga o prihodnosti Evrope, brexit, civilno pravo, direktive, Evropska komisija, finančni trgi, gospodarsko pravo, insolvenca, intelektualna lastnina, kazensko pravo, konkurenčno pravo, modeli integracije, priznanje in izvršitev odločb, prost pretok blaga, prost pretok oseb, sekundarna zakonodaja, skupni trg, Sodišče EU

Title: Aspects of EU Commercial Law according to the White Paper on the Future of Europe, in Light of Brexit

Abstract: The article examines the consequences of an EU Member withdrawing state from the integration, namely Brexit. It discusses general influences on the creation and enforcement of community law and models of economic integration, and specifically analyses individual areas of law, focusing on economic issues. These areas are civil law, the functioning of financial markets, corporate law and commercial law in the broad sense, insolvency, intellectual property, criminal law, competition law, recognition and enforcement of decisions, free movement of goods and free movement of persons.

Key words: White Paper on the future of Europe, Brexit, civil law, directives, European Commission, financial markets, commercial law, insolvency, intellectual property, criminal law, competition law, integration models, recognition and enforcement of decisions, free movement of goods, free movement of persons, secondary legislation, common market, Court of Justice

Judita Dolžan

Povzetek: Namen prispevka je kratka predstavitev predlogov direktive o dobavi digitalnih vsebin in direktive o spletni prodaji blaga, katerih cilj je podjetjem in potrošnikom olajšati dostop do digitalnega blaga in storitev na digitalnem trgu. Potrošnik, ki bo kupil digitalno vsebino ali se naročil na digitalno storitev, bo imel v vseh državah članicah na voljo enotna pravna sredstva, če digitalna vsebina ali storitev ne bo dobavljena ali bo imela napako. Ta pravila pa ne bodo veljala le takrat, ko bo potrošnik za digitalno vsebino ali storitev plačal v denarju, ampak pod določenimi pogoji tudi takrat, ko bo zagotovil svoje osebne podatke. Podobno naj bi bili potrošniki, ki kupujejo blago po spletu oziroma na daljavo v EU, deležni enotnega sklopa pravic, kadar blago ne bo dostavljeno ali bo imelo napako. Ta enotna ureditev naj bi podjetjem olajšala čezmejno poslovanje, saj bodo tako morali upoštevati samo en sklop pravil. To bo povečalo pravno varnost, zmanjšalo transakcijske stroške podjetij ter na dolgi rok prispevalo k večji konkurenci in ugodnejšim cenam za potrošnike.

Ključne besede: digitalna strategija, digitalni trg, spletna prodaja blaga, dobava digitalnih vsebin in digitalnih storitev, pravice potrošnika, pravna sredstva, vgrajena digitalna vsebina, zagotovitev osebnih podatkov, varstvo osebnih podatkov

Title: Access to Goods, Digital Content and Services on the European Digital Single Market

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present briefly the proposal of the Directive on digital content and the proposal of the Directive on the online sales of goods, which shall enable better access to digital goods and services on the digital market to companies and consumers. If digital content or digital services are not supplied or are not conforming to the contract, the consumer ordering digital content or digital services will have one set of remedies in all Member States. These rules will not apply only in cases when the consumer pays a price, but under certain conditions also in cases when the consumer provides personal data to the supplier. Similarly, the consumers who buy goods online in the EU will also have one set of remedies in case of non-delivery or non-conformity of goods. These rules shall make cross-border sales in the EU easier, since businesses will have to comply only with one set of rules. This shall increase legal certainty and reduce the transaction costs of businesses and in long-term contribute to more competition and better prices for consumers.

Key words: digital strategy, digital market, online sales of goods, supply of digital content and digital services, consumer rights, remedies, embedded digital content, provision of personal data, protection of personal data

Meta Ahtik, Janja Hojnik

Povzetek: Cilj članka je prikazati številne dimenzije digitalnega gospodarstva in njegov vpliv na pravni razvoj v prihodnosti. Digitalizacija gospodarstva je eden od gospodarskih megatrendov v sodobni družbi, proces ustvarjanja dodane vrednosti s povezavo izdelkov z internetom in s proizvodnjo presežnih učinkov na tej podlagi. Glede na njegovo večplastnost se digitalizacija gospodarstva po naravi dotika celotnega spektra pravnih področij. Članek najprej prikazuje pravne izzive interneta stvari in številna odprta vprašanja, povezana zlasti, a ne le, s področji intelektualne lastnine, varstvom osebnih podatkov in zasebnosti ter varstvom potrošnikov. Nato proučuje Uber in pričakovano odločitev Sodišča EU, ki bo opredelila, ali je Uber transportno podjetje ali spletna platforma. Pravne posledice možnih odločitev se med seboj precej razlikujejo. Končno članek predstavi še izzive, povezane z bitcoinom kot najbolj reprezentativno virtualno valuto. Trenutno so te valute regulirane le na področjih obdavčitve ter preprečevanja pranja denarja in financiranja terorizma. Avtorici zaključujeva, da pravo po eni strani spodbuja pozitivne vidike digitalizacije gospodarstva, po drugi pa omejuje njene negativne posledice za evropsko gospodarstvo in družbo.

Ključne besede: digitalno gospodarstvo, bitcoin, storitvizacija, internet stvari, digitalizacija industrije, ekonomija delitve, veliko podatkovje, oblak proizvodnje, 3D-tiskanje

Title: Digital Economy: Bitcoin, Internet of Things and Uber

Abstract: The objective of the article is to demonstrate the many dimensions of digital economy and its impact on future legal development. Digitalisation of economy is one of the economic megatrends in modern society, a process creating value by connecting products to Internet and producing spillover effects on this basis. Considering its multifaceted character, digitalisation of economy inherently touches upon the full spectrum of legal fields. The article first presents an overview of the legal challenges of the Internet of Things, pointing out several open issues related, in particular, but not exclusively to intellectual property, protection of personal data, privacy and consumer protection. It then considers Uber and the awaited decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union that will determine whether Uber is purely a transport company or an Internet platform. Legal consequences of each of the possible decisions differ significantly. Finally, it presents the challenges related to Bitcoin as the most representative virtual currency that is currently predominantly regulated only in the fields of taxation, prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing. It may be observed that the law promotes the positive aspects of digitalisation of economy, while simultaneously restraining its negative implications for the European economy and society.

Key words: digital economy, Bitcoin, servitisation, Internet of Things, Digitising Industry, Sharing Economy, Big Data, cloud manufacturing, 3D printing

Ivan Ravbar

Povzetek: V prispevku so pojasnjeni pravna narava projektantove odgovornosti za napako gradbe in naročnikovi zahtevki zoper projektanta.

Ključne besede: pogodba o izdelavi projekta, napaka projekta, napaka gradbe, odgovornost projektanta

Title: Designer’s Liability for Defects in Construction

Abstract: The article explains the legal nature of designer's liability for defects in construction and claims brought by clients against designers.

Key words: project contract, project defects, buildings defects, designer's liability

Vesna Kranjc

Povzetek: Nadzorni inženir ima pomembno vlogo pri gradnji, a se pri tem odpira vrsta pravnih vprašanj. Pogodba o nadzoru pri gradnji ni urejena kot poseben pogodbeni tip, podrejena je pravilom mandatne pogodbe. Članek obravnava različna vprašanja o obveznostih in upravičenjih nadzornega inženirja. Avtorica poudarja razliko pri ureditvi med Obligacijskim zakonikom in Rdečo knjigo FIDIC.

Ključne besede: pogodba o nadzoru pri gradnji, gradbena pogodba, nadzorni inženir, naročnik gradnje, izvajalec gradnje, Rdeča knjiga FIDIC

Title: Rights and Obligations of Engineer in Relation to the Client and Construction Contractor

Abstract: An engineer or building surveyor plays an important role during construction, but his legal position is not clear. A contract on supervision of works is not governed by specific statutory provisions. The article initially points out that the contract on supervision of works is a type of the mandate contract. The article deals with the different questions of engineer''s duties and authority. The author points out the different regulations of the issues, comparing the Slovenian Code of Obligations and FIDIC Red Book.

Key words: contract to supervision of works, construction contract, engineer, building surveyor, client, employer, contractor, FIDIC Red Book

Maja Koršič Potočnik

Povzetek: Ker za gradbeno pogodbo velja, da je ena najbolj zapletenih pogodb v Obligacijskem zakoniku (OZ), jo izvajalec zelo redko realizira povsem samostojno, brez podizvajalcev. Zapletene gradnje, ki praviloma zahtevajo sodelovanje podizvajalcev, pa s seboj prinesejo tudi zapletena vprašanja glede njih, med katerimi je prvo že to, kateri subjekti spadajo med podizvajalce, pa tudi vprašanja, povezana s pravico naročnika gradnje, da vpliva na izbiro podizvajalcev, ter z njegovim direktnim plačilom podizvajalcev. V podizvajalskih razmerjih namreč v nekaterih primerih nastane neposredna obveznost naročnika v razmerju do podizvajalca. V zvezi z njim se pri javnih naročilih zastavlja vprašanje, ali lahko podizvajalec, ki se je ob oddaji ponudbe glavnemu izvajalcu odpovedal pravici do direktnega plačila oziroma tega ni zahteval, pozneje premisli in takšno plačilo zahteva. Prav tako aktualno je vprašanje, v katerih primerih je mogoče šteti, da je položaj podizvajalca potrjen, in kdaj ima podizvajalec pravico, da od naročnika zahteva neposredno plačilo po 631. členu OZ, če želi, da zahteva naročnika zavezuje.

Ključne besede: definicija podizvajalca, vpliv naročnika na izbiro podizvajalca, neposredno plačilo podizvajalcu, pripoznanje podizvajalčeve terjatve, koneksnost terjatev, cediranje terjatev, izpolnitev pogodbenih obveznosti

Title: Relationships with Subcontractors in a Construction Contract

Abstract: Due to the fact that the Construction Contract is one of the most complex contracts in the Code of Obligations, it is very rare that the contractor is able to carry out the contract independently without subcontractors. More complex projects typically require engagement of subcontractors, which by default gives rise to complex questions, such as, which entities fall under the category of subcontractors, as well as questions related to the client''s right to influence the selection of subcontractors and regarding direct payment to subcontractors from the client. In certain cases of the subcontracting relationships, a direct obligation of the client in relation to the subcontractor arises. Regarding the latter, in relation to public procurement, the question arises whether or not a subcontractor, who at the time of the submission of the offer waived the right to direct payment, or did not request it at the time, can later reconsider and request direct payment. Another relevant issue is, when can the situation of the subcontractor be considered confirmed; furthermore, when do subcontractor have the right to request direct payment from the client in accordance with Article 631 of the Code of Obligations, if they wish the request to be binding on the client.

Key words: definition of subcontractor, client''s influence over the selection of a subcontractor, direct payment to a subcontractor, recognition of subcontractor''s claims, compliance of claims, assignment of claims, fulfilment of contractual obligations

Franc Seljak

Povzetek: Slovenska sodišča so se v zadnjih letih v številnih odločbah ukvarjala z vprašanji, povezanimi z gradbeno pogodbo. Vzroke za to je treba iskati v povečanju števila sodnih sporov iz tovrstnih razmerij kot posledice gospodarske recesije po letu 2007. Pregled povzema najpomembnejša stališča, ki jih je Vrhovno sodišče Republike Slovenije v zadnjih petih letih zavzelo o pravnih razmerjih in o porazdelitvi poslovnih tveganj, ki izhajajo iz gradbene pogodbe in z njo povezanih pogodbenih razmerij.

Ključne besede: gradbena pogodba, sodna praksa, neizpolnitev, neposredni zahtevki sodelavcev (podizvajalcev)

Title: Current Judicial Interpretation of a Building Contract

Abstract: In recent years, Slovenian courts have had many cases dealing with questions regarding building contracts. The reason for that was an increasing number of litigations regarding these relationships, as a result of the 2007 economic recession. The overview sums up the most important positions the Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia took in the last five years regarding legal relationships and the distribution of business risks that originate from building contracts and the contractual relationships associated with it.

Key words: building contract, case law, non-performance of contract, direct claim by contractor''s associates

Konrad Plauštajner, Petja Plauštajner

Povzetek: Eden od razlogov, da so pogoji FIDIC zelo uporabni za gradbene in investicijske pogodbe, je dobro razvit sistem reševanja sporov. Izvedba infrastrukturnih projektov je že po naravi zahteven posel, tako v tehničnem kot tudi pravnem smislu. Pomembna sta tako denar kot čas. Če nastane spor med naročnikom in izvajalcem in se projekt izvaja po pogojih FIDIC, se lahko uporabijo predvideni načini razrešitve sporov. Izvajalec mora svoje zahtevke posredovati inženirju, naročnik se s svojimi zahtevki obrne neposredno na izvajalca. Če se sporazum ne doseže, sledi postopek pred komisijo za reševanje sporov, ki jo skupaj imenujeta naročnik in izvajalec in ima enega ali tri člane. Odločitev komisije je zavezujoča, če ji nobena stran ne oporeka. Nezadovoljna stranka mora podati izjavo o tem v 28 dneh po prejemu odločitve in jo posredovati nasprotni strani. Kljub pritožbi sta stranki dolžni znova doseči sporazum. Če nista uspešni, se lahko začne spor pred arbitražo, razen če sta stranki v pogodbi določili pristojnost državnega sodišča.

Ključne besede: FIDIC, komisija za reševanje sporov, naročnik, izvajalec, inženir, alternativno reševanje sporov, zahtevki strank, pogodba

Title: Dispute Resolution under FIDIC Contracts

Abstract: One of the reasons that FIDIC terms (1999) are so popular for construction contracts is the well-developed set of dispute resolution procedures. Implementing infrastructure projects is by its nature a complicated undertaking in both technical and legal terms, involving significant commitments of time and money. If a dispute arises between the Employer and Contractor, dispute resolutions foreseen by FIDIC are available. Under clauses of FIDIC terms, claims are submitted to the Engineer, or directly from the Employer to the Contractor. If a dispute cannot be resolved in this manner, it will then pass to the Dispute Adjudication Board, appointed jointly by the Employer and the Contractor, and comprising one or three members. The decision of the Dispute Adjudication Board is binding, and the parties are required to comply with it promptly. A party has 28 days to reject the decision by notifying the other party. If the decision is accepted, it becomes final. If a party is not satisfied with the decision, the parties should attempt to resolve the issue amicably. If that fails, the dispute then be resolved by arbitration, unless the parties contractually agreed to resolve disputes before a state court.

Key words: FIDIC, Dispute Adjudication Board, Employer, Contractor, Engineer, Alternative Dispute Resolution, parties' claims, Contract

Barbara Kresal

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava spletne platforme (na primer Uber in druge podobne primere), ki so relevantne z vidika delovnega prava. Kritično analizira izraze in koncepte sodelovalno gospodarstvo, delitvena ekonomija, platformsko delo itd. Predstavi različne teoretske poglede na pravno naravo takšnih platform in razmerij med spletno platformo, osebami, ki opravljajo delo, ter uporabniki ponujenih storitev. Predstavljena sta tudi razvoj na politični ravni v okviru EU in novejša sodna praksa.

Ključne besede: delitvena ekonomija, sodelovalno gospodarstvo, spletne platforme, prekarno delo, delovno razmerje

Title: Work in Times of »Sharing Economy«, »Collaborative Economy« and »Internet Platforms«

Abstract: The contribution discusses Internet platforms (such as Uber and similar), which are relevant for the labour law. It presents a critical analysis of the terms and concepts of the collaborative economy, sharing economy, platform work, etc. It presents different theoretical views on the legal nature of such platforms and of the relationships between the platform and those who provide work and the users of supplied services. Developments at the political level within the EU and recent case law are presented as well.

Key words: sharing economy, collaborative economy, Internet platforms, precarious work, employment relationship

Darja Senčur Peček

Povzetek: Množična uporaba mobilnih informacijsko-komunikacijskih naprav (prenosnih računalnikov, tablic, mobilnih telefonov) v zvezi z delom delavcem omogoča, da delo opravljajo kjerkoli in kadarkoli. V prispevku so obravnavana vprašanja, ki se v okviru tega nanašajo na opredelitev delovnega časa delavcev ter na zagotavljanje varnosti in zdravja pri delu. Avtorica ugotavlja, da delodajalci z zahtevo po stalni dosegljivosti delavcev posegajo v njihov prosti čas, saj se v delovni čas všteva samo obdobje dejanskega dela zunaj delovnega mesta z uporabo IK-tehnologije. Psihosocialna tveganja (ki vključujejo stalno dosegljivost) so poleg ergonomskih tveganj najpomembnejši izziv glede varnega in zdravega dela z mobilnimi informacijsko-komunikacijskimi napravami.

Ključne besede: digitalizacija, informacijska tehnologija, delovno razmerje, delovni čas, stalna dosegljivost, varnost in zdravje pri delu

Title: Impact of Information Technology on Employment Relationships

Abstract: The widespread use of mobile information and communication devices (laptops, tablets, mobile phones) in connection with work allows employees to perform their work anywhere and anytime. The article addresses issues related to the definition of employees'' working time and to the safety and health at work. The author concluded that by requesting a constant availability, the employers are interfering with their employees'' leisure time because only the time when the employee is actually performing work outside the workplace by way of information and communication technology is considered a working time. Psychosocial risks (which include constant availability) are, in addition to ergonomic risks, the most important challenge related to safe and healthy work with mobile information and communication devices.

Key words: digitalisation, information technology, employment relationship, working time, constant availability, safety and health at work

Luka Tičar

Povzetek: Področje napotitev delavcev v okviru izvajanja storitev EU je resen problem, saj kljub želji zagotoviti napotenim delavcem primerno varstvo in delovnopravni položaj v praksi ni tako. Delno se je problematika uredila s sprejetjem izvedbene direktive, ki zmanjšuje število zlorab in izogibanje pravnim pravilom, a osnovni problem ostaja. Po veljavni pravni ureditvi in praksi Sodišča EU so napoteni delavci v državi napotitve upravičeni do zgolj minimalnih delavskih pravic. V postopku sprejemanja je revizija osnovne direktive, ki naj bi to spremenila in privedla do še nekaterih sprememb. Izvedbeno direktivo je Slovenija v svoj pravni red prenesla z Zakonom o čezmejnem opravljanju storitev. Zakon o delovnih razmerjih pa je že danes primerljiv s predlaganim besedilom revizije direktive.

Ključne besede: napoteni delavci, svoboda izvajanja storitev, izvedbena direktiva, minimalni obseg pravic delavcev

Title: Dilemmas regarding Posting of Workers

Abstract: The field of posting of workers in the framework of the provision of services represents a serious problem for the EU. Despite a wish to guarantee workers proper labour protection, that is not case in practise. The situation has partially improved with the adoption of an implementing directive, which prevents abuse and circumvention, but the initial problem remains. According to valid legal regulation and case law of the EU Court, posted workers are entitled only to minimum labour rights of the host state. A revision of the basic directive is in the process of adoption, which would bring some changes in this regard. Slovenia transposed the implementing directive by enacting the Transnational Provision of Services Act. The content of the Employment Relationship Act is already comparable with the draft text of the revision of the basic directive.

Key words: posted workers, freedom of services, implementing directive, minimum level of workers'' rights

Marijan Debelak

Povzetek: Avtor obravnava sodno prakso Sodišča Evropske unije v zvezi z Direktivo Sveta 98/59/ES o približevanju zakonodaje držav članic v zvezi s kolektivnimi odpusti. Pri tem se osredotoča na pojme podjetja, delavca in kolektivnega odpusta ter posledice takšnega tolmačenja za sodno prakso. Podaja pregled prakse Vrhovnega sodišča Republike Slovenije v zvezi z določbami Zakona o delovnih razmerjih, ki se nanašajo na odpoved pogodbe o zaposlitvi iz poslovnega razloga. Poudarja novejšo sodno prakso, ki zajema okvire sodne presoje zakonitosti odpovedi iz poslovnega razloga v primerih odpovedi manjšemu in večjemu številu delavcev ter obstoj poslovnega razloga v primerih manjših odstopanj od poslovanja, znižanja plač in spremembe sistemizacije delovnih mest, nadomeščanja in zaposlovanja novih delavcev, podaljševanja pogodb o zaposlitvi za določen čas in obstoja nadurnega dela. Predstavlja tudi prakso v zvezi z določitvijo presežnih delavcev, predvsem uporabo kriterijev, ter z določitvijo primerljivih delavcih in števila delavcev, ki jih je treba upoštevati pri izvedbi ustreznih postopkov odpovedi.

Ključne besede: kolektivni odpust, podjetje, delavec, poslovni razlog, znižanje plače, sprememba akta o sistemizaciji, nove zaposlitve, kriteriji za določitev, primerljivost delavcev, število nepotrebnih delavcev

Title: Termination of Employment for Economic, Technological, Structural and Similar Reasons

Abstract: The author discusses case law of the EU Court regarding Council Directive 98/59/EC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to collective redundancies, focusing on the concepts of establishment, worker and collective redundancies, as well as the consequences of such interpretation for case law. It present a review of case law of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia on provisions of the Employment Relationship Act related to termination of employment for business reasons. It emphasises recent case law, which includes the framework for judicial review of legality of employment termination for business reasons in cases of collective redundancies for a smaller and larger number of workers, and the existence of business reasons in cases of small business deviations, decrease of earnings, and changes of systemisation of jobs, replacement and hiring of new workers, employment contract extensions for a fixed period, and the existence of overtime work. It also presents practices on determining redundant workers, primarily the use of criteria, and determining comparable workers and the number of workers that need to be considered in implementing appropriate termination procedures.

Key words: collective redundancies, establishment, worker, business reason, decrease of earnings, amendment of the act on the systemisation of jobs, criteria for determining, comparability of workers, number of unnecessary workers

Valentina Franca

Povzetek: Izhodišče prispevka je teza, da je prihodnost kolektivnih delovnih razmerij negotova, kar velja tako na nacionalni kot na mednarodni ravni. Glavni dejavniki in okoliščine, ki ogrožajo sedanji sistem kolektivnih delovnih razmerij, so spremembe na trgu dela, oslabljena moč in delovanje sindikatov, problematika združevanja delodajalcev in pravna neurejenost področja. Delavci, ki delajo v netipičnih oblikah dela, so prikrajšani pri uresničevanju kolektivnih pravic, na kar vplivajo tako pravna regulativa kakor tudi druge družbene okoliščine. Pred delavskimi predstavniki, zlasti sindikati, je veliko izzivov, kako redefinirati svoj položaj na trgu dela s ciljem ne le obstoja, temveč učinkovitega in legitimnega zastopanja interesov delavcev v socialnem dialogu. Težnje delodajalcev po decentralizaciji kolektivnih pogajanj in večji prožnosti pri sklepanju pogodb, katerih predmet je delo, sočasno s problematiko (ne)združevanja v delodajalska združenja, za obstoječa kolektivna delovna razmerja pomenijo resno grožnjo. Država v vlogi zakonodajalca bi morala aktivneje vstopiti v ta razmerja, saj zakonodaja iz časa osamosvojitve že dolgo ne ustreza družbenim in poslovnim razmeram. Zato ocenjujemo, da so potrebne tako normativne kot dejanske družbene spremembe, če želimo ohraniti kolektivna delovna razmerja na taki ravni, da bodo lahko izpolnjevala svoj namen.

Ključne besede: kolektivna delovna razmerja, sindikati, sveti delavcev, netipične oblike dela, socialni dialog, delodajalska združenja

Title: Uncertain Future of Collective Employment Relationships

Abstract: The paper''s thesis is that the future of collective employment relationships is uncertain, both at national and international level. It highlights the changes in the labour market, undermined power and activity of trade unions, issues relating to the mergers of employers and shortcomings in the legal regulation in this field as the main factors and circumstances jeopardizing the current system of collective employment relationships. Employees working in non-typical work arrangements are deprived from exercising their collective rights, influenced by both legal regulation as well as other social circumstances. Employees'' representatives, trade unions in particular, face many challenges as to how to redefine their position in the labour market with the aim not merely to exist, but also to efficiently and legitimately represent employees'' interests in a social dialogue. On the other hand, the employers'' tendency to decentralise collective negotiations and to have more flexibility when concluding contracts, the substance of which is work, together with the issues relating to the (lack of) association of employers into associations, presents a serious threat to existing collective employment relationships. The state in its role of a legislator should more actively enter into these relationships, since the legislation from the time of independence has long ceased to fit into the modern social and business environment. Therefore, we estimate that normative as well as social changes are required in order for the collective employment relationships to be maintained at a level to achieve their purpose.

Key words: collective employment relationships, trade unions, works council, social dialogue, employers'' associations

Miha Juhart

Povzetek: Pravno razmerje etažne lastnine je sestavljeno pravno razmerje, v katerem se prepletajo stvarnopravni in obligacijskopravni elementi. V veljavnem pravu je to razmerje urejeno v Stvarnopravnem zakoniku, Stanovanjskem zakonu in Zakonu o vzpostavitvi etažne lastnine. Zadnji je prehodne narave, saj se nanaša na uskladitev neurejenih razmerij iz preteklosti. Pravna pravila v Stvarnopravnem zakoniku in Stanovanjskem zakonu pa se podvajajo oziroma včasih prihajajo v vsebinska nasprotja. Avtor opozarja predvsem na problem obvezne pogodbe o medsebojnih razmerjih med etažnimi lastniki. Zavzema se za spremembo koncepta, ki naj to pogodbo določi kot dispozitivno. Zakonska ureditev pa naj celovito uredi medsebojna razmerja in dopusti odmike, če je takšna volja etažnih lastnikov.

Ključne besede: etažna lastnina, pogodba o medsebojnih razmerjih, stanovanjski zakon, stvarnopravni zakonik

Title: Regulating Mutual Relationships of Strata-Title Holders de lege ferenda

Abstract: The legal relationship of strata-title ownership consists of two elements: property and community among the apartments owner. In the current law, this relationship is regulated by the Property Code, the Housing Act and the Act on the Acquisition of the Strata Title of a Part of a Building. The latter is of a transitory nature, as it refers to the reconciliation of unsettled relations from the past. The legal rules in the Property Code and the Housing Act duplicate or sometimes come into substantive conflicts. The author primarily draws attention to the problem of a compulsory contract on mutual relationships among apartment owners. The author advocates a change of the concept, which should define this contract as dispositive. However, the statutory arrangement should regulate mutual relationships and allow special provisions and rules based on the expressed will of the owners.

Key words: strata-title ownership, contract on mutual relationships among apartment owners, Property Code, Housing Act

Franci Gerbec

Povzetek: V okviru strokovnih priprav za sprejetje nove stanovanjske zakonodaje in celovito zakonsko ureditev upravljanja stavb v etažni lastnini je eno najpomembnejših vprašanj ureditev vloge in položaja upravnika večstanovanjske in druge stavbe v etažni lastnini. Avtor kritično predstavi sedanjo zakonsko ureditev upravnikove vloge, nalog in pooblastil in jo primerja s podobnimi ureditvami v nekaterih drugih državah. Težišče prispevka je na predstavitvi predlogov glede bodoče zakonske ureditve pojma in obveznosti imenovanja upravnika, njegovega položaja in pooblastil, navzkrižja (konflikta interesov) med upravnikom in etažnimi lastniki, določitev pogojev za opravljanje poslov upravnika ter dobe imenovanje upravnika za določen ali nedoločen čas in prenosa poslov z dosedanjega upravnika na novega.

Ključne besede: upravnik, pojem in obveznosti imenovanja, pooblastila upravnika, navzkrižje interesov upravnika in etažnih lastnikov, pogoji za imenovanje upravnika, doba imenovanja, prenos poslov upravnika Title: Building Manager of an Apartment Building and Other Building under a Strata Title

Abstract: As part of the expert preparation for adopting the new housing legislation and comprehensive legal regulation of building management under a strata title, one of the most important issues is the regulation of the role and position of a building manager of an apartment building and other building under a strata title. The author critically presents the current legislative regulation of the building manager''s role, tasks and authorisations, comparing it to similar regulations in some other countries. The article focuses on the presentation of proposals for future legislative arrangement of the concept and obligations of appointment of building manager, building manager''s position and authorisations, conflicts of interest between building manager and strata-title owners, definition of criteria for conducting business of a building manager, the duration of appointment of a building manager for a fixed or indefinite period, and transfer of building management operations from a current to a new building manager.

Key words: building manager, concept and obligations of appointment, building manager''s authorisations, conflict of interests of building manager and strata-title owners, criteria for appointment of building manager, duration of appointment, transfer of building management operations

Matija Damjan

Povzetek: Stanovanjska najemna pogodba je pravni posel civilnega prava, za katerega veljajo specialna pravila stanovanjske zakonodaje, pri neprofitnih stanovanjskih razmerjih pa so še izraziteje prisotni javnopravni elementi. Prispevek prikazuje nekatere predloge za reformo zakonske ureditve stanovanjskih najemnih razmerij, ki so bili oblikovani v okviru strokovne študije za Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor. Zaradi pomanjkljivosti pri izvajanju sedanje ureditve neprofitnega najema se predlaga nadomestitev sedanjih neprofitnih najemnin z novima instrumentoma stroškovne najemnine in stanovanjskega dodatka. Pomembna novost bi bili tudi vzpostavitev mehanizmov alternativnega reševanja stanovanjskih sporov in uvedba izpraznitvenega naloga.

Ključne besede: stanovanjska najemna pogodba, podnajem, neprofitno stanovanje, najemnina, odpovedni razlogi, stanovanjska arbitraža

Title: New Housing Rental Regulation

Abstract: A housing rental contract is a legal transaction of private law, subject to special rules of housing legislation, whereas public policy elements are even more pronounced in non-profit housing arrangements. The article outlines certain proposals for the reform of housing rental regulation that were formulated in an expert study for the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning. Due to the shortcomings in the implementation of the current regime of non-profit rental, it is proposed that the current non-profit rents be replaced with new instruments of cost rent and housing allowance. Important novelties would be the establishment of alternative dispute settlement mechanisms and the introduction of a court order for eviction.

Key words: housing rental agreement, sublease, non-profit apartment, rent, cancellation reasons, housing arbitration

Mitja Podpečan

Povzetek: Spremenjena in dopolnjena pravila vročanja drugače kot doslej urejajo nekatere načine vročanja, obveznost prevzema vseh pisanj in ugotavljanje naslova za vročanje, poleg tega pa e-vročanje, ki se bo lahko izvajalo tudi prek informacijskega sistema sodstva.

Ključne besede: vročanje, e-vročanje, pravdni postopek, pošteno sojenje, Uredba (EU) št. 910/2014

Title: Service of Documents in Civil Proceedings in Accordance with Act amending the Civil Procedure Act (ZPP-E) and eDelivery

Abstract: The amended rules on service regulate differently than before the means of service, obligation to accept all documents, identification of the address for service, and eDelivery, which can also be carried out by the judicial information system.

Key words: service of documents, eDelivery, litigation proceeding, fair trial, Regulation (EU) No 910/2014

Aleš Galič

Povzetek: Novela Zakona o pravdnem postopku (ZPP-E) ne spreminja temeljne zasnove pravdnega postopka v Sloveniji, kljub temu pa prinaša nekaj pomembnih novosti, ki bodo vplivale na delo sodnikov prve in druge stopnje v zvezi z ugotavljanjem dejstev. Za sodišča prve stopnje so s tem povezane predvsem novosti glede dokazovanja, predvsem razširitev obveznosti izročitve listin, možnost predpravdne postavitve izvedenca, instrumentarij za varstvo poslovnih skrivnosti. Za sodišča druge stopnje pa je pomemben vnovičen zakonodajalčev poskus, da se poveča število pritožbenih obravnav ter zmanjša pogostost razveljavitve sodbe in vračanja zadeve sodišču prve stopnje v nov postopek.

Ključne besede: dokazi, razkritje dokazov, poslovna skrivnost, pravdni postopek, pravica do pritožbe

Title: Establishing Facts in Lower Courts and in Appellate Courts in Civil Procedure

Abstract: The latest amendment of the Civil Procedure Act does not introduce any groundbreaking changes in the structure of Slovenian civil procedure. It does however provide for certain changes that shall influence the activities of judges both at the lower and appellate courts concerning establishing disputed facts. For the first instance judges, changes concerning taking of evidence shall be of a particular importance, e.g. broadening the scope of disclosure of documents, the possibility for the court to appoint an expert already in the pre-action phase, but also the instruments aimed at protection of trade secrets in civil procedures. Concerning appellate courts, the legislature has again tried to promote a higher number of oral hearings in those courts, which might, hopefully, decrease the number of cases where the appellate court merely quashes the judgment and refers it back to the first instance court for a retrial.

Key words: evidence, disclosure of evidence, trade secrets, civil procedure, right to appeal

Vesna Rijavec

Povzetek: Postopki v družinskih zadevah so v prispevku obravnavani po sistematiki civilnega procesnega prava, vendar upoštevaje reformo, ki je posledica sprejema Družinskega zakonika in sodobnih teženj. Na prvem mestu avtorica ocenjuje prenos pristojnosti z upravnih organov na sodišča. Sledi razmejitev med pravdnim in nepravdnim postopkom z razlogi za opravljeno zakonodajno izbiro in primerjalnopravnimi utemeljitvami. Pomemben del je seznam posameznih postopkov z navedbo vrste pristojnosti in postopka. Predstavljene so poglavitne značilnosti sporov v pravdnem postopku in značilnosti nepravdnih postopkov. Poudarek je na temeljnih načelih civilnega procesnega prava, ki so prilagojena naravi posameznih postopkov. Predstavljene so rešitve za varstvo otrokovega položaja. Avtorica na vseh mestih upošteva že sprejeta določila in predlaga še potrebne zakonodajne ukrepe.

Ključne besede: sodna ali upravna pristojnost, družinska zadeva, pravdni postopek, nepravdni postopek, položaj otroka v sodnem postopku, otrokova največja korist

Title: Procedures in Family Matters after Enactment of Family Code

Abstract: The author presents different procedures in family matters following the legal structure of a civil procedure, with regard to the legislative reform due to the enactment of new Family Code. In the first place, the author evaluates the radical transfer of jurisdiction from administrative authorities to the courts, and the division between litigious and non-contentious procedure, contemplated with comparative legal issues. The important part is the list of court proceedings with corresponding types of procedure and presentation of main procedural characteristics. The emphasis is on the general principles adapted to the specific nature of procedure in family matters. There is a profound analysis of the child''s position within the court proceedings. The author at all times considers the enacted rules and gives suggestions for necessary future legislative measures.

Key words: court or administrative jurisdiction, family matter, litigation, non-contentious civil procedure, child''s position within the procedure, child''s best interest

Andrej Ekart

Povzetek: Vrhovno sodišče z ukinitvijo dovoljene revizije postaja precedenčno sodišče, zato bi bilo primerno, da svojo precedenčno vlogo prek instituta dopuščene revizije udejanja tudi v izvršilnih postopkih, kot to velja v Nemčiji, Avstriji in na Hrvaškem. Izvršba je v prvi vrsti namenjena interesom upnika, da se mu poplača terjatev, ki je dolžniku naložena s pravnomočno sodno odločbo ali drugim izvršilnim naslovom. Vendar se pod vplivom sodne prakse ESČP pripravljajo spremembe zakonodaje, ki bodo narekovale dodatno skrbnost pri izvršbi na nepremičnine, če je ta predlagana na stanovanje ali stanovanjsko hišo, ki je dolžnikov dom, za poplačilo dolga, ki ni sorazmeren z ugotovljeno vrednostjo nepremičnine. V takem primeru sodišče o tem obvesti center za socialno delo, ki lahko sam ali skupaj s humanitarnimi organizacijami da dolžniku finančno, svetovalno, čustveno in drugo pomoč in podporo, da ne bi (skupaj z družino) zašel v krog propada.

Ključne besede: izvršba, pravna sredstva, revizija, učinkovitost izvršbe, varstvo dolžnika, izvršba na nepremičnine, načelo sorazmernosti

Title: Balancing Procedural Positions in the Enforcement Procedure - Amendments to the Enforcement and Security Act

Abstract: Changes to the Civil Procedure Act, which came into effect on 14 September 2017, provide a leave to appeal system to the Slovenian Supreme Court. The Supreme Court assumes a precedential role in civil litigious cases. It would be appropriate to implement its precedential role through a legal remedy of revision in the enforcement procedures as well, as is the case in Germany, Austria and Croatia. Enforcement is primarily intended to serve the interest of the creditor to repay his claim, which is imposed on the debtor by a final court decision or another enforceable title. However, under the influence of the case law of the ECtHR, amendments to the legislation are being prepared to impose additional diligence in cases of enforcement against immovable property if the enforcement is proposed to an apartment or a dwelling house that is the debtor''s home for the repayment of a debt that is disproportionate to the established value of the property. In such a case, the court informs the Social Work Centre, which can provide, by itself or in cooperation with humanitarian organisations, the debtor with counselling, financial, emotional and other type of assistance and support in order to avoid the debtor''s cycle of decline.

Key words: civil enforcement of judgments, legal remedies, revision, efficiency of enforcement, enforcement against real estate, principle of proportionality

Matej Čujovič

Povzetek: V prispevku so obravnavane vrste nepravdnih postopkov in uporaba ZPP v njih. Avtor posebno pozornost nameni novim institutom in spremembam, ki jih uvaja novela ZPP-E, ter razloži primernost njihove uporabe v posameznih nepravdnih postopkih.

Ključne besede: nepravdni postopek, smiselna uporaba pravdnega postopka

Title: Application of the Civil Procedure Act in Non-Contentious Proceedings

Abstract: The article discusses types of non-contentious proceedings and the use of the Civil Procedure Act (CPA) in such proceedings. The author discusses in particular the new institutes, introduced by the amendment of CPA, and explains the "meaningful use" of CPA in different non-contentious proceedings.

Key words: non-contentious proceeding, meaningful use of CPA

Zlatan Dežman

Povzetek: Postmodernistična kritika modernega prava zadeva vse značilnosti, po katerih se to razlikuje od drugih sodobnih pravnih sistemov. Pri tem je razkrila nekatere vidike, ki zadevajo tudi metodologijo kazenskega procesnega prava kot znanosti o tem, kako naj bo urejen kazenski postopek, da bo ustrezal doseženi stopnji splošne in predvsem pravne kulture države, ki se deklarira kot demokratična pravna in socialna država. Ob prizadevanjih za drugačen model našega kazenskega postopka, kot izvira iz tradicionalnega zakonskega koncepta, namreč v ospredje prihajajo metodološka vprašanja. Zato je namen prispevka prikazati nekatere najpomembnejše spremembe v strukturi kazenskega postopka, njegov razvojni trend, nekatere kritične poglede na metodologijo kazenskega procesnega prava in prispevek sistemske teorije k njegovi metodologiji ter oblikovati sklepne ugotovitve.

Ključne besede: kazensko procesno pravo, metodologija, sistemska teorija, postmodernistična kritika, diskurz, struktura procesnega diskurza

Title: Methodology of Criminal Procedure Law as a Subject of Postmodernist Criticisms

Abstract: The postmodernist critique of modern law concerns all its characteristics, which distinguish it from other modern legal systems. In doing so, it revealed some aspects that also apply to the methodology of criminal procedure law as a science on how the criminal procedure should be regulated in order to meet the achieved level of the general, and especially the legal, culture, which is declared as a democratic legal and social state. Methodological issues are entering the forefront in the efforts for a different model of our criminal procedure, as originated from this traditional legal concept. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show: some of the most important changes in the structure of the criminal procedure, its developmental trend, some critical views of the methodology of criminal procedural law, the contribution of systems theory to its methodology and conclusion.

Key words: criminal procedure law, methodology, systems theory, fundamental rights, modern law, criminal procedure reform, novelties

Mitja Jelenič Novak

Povzetek: V pretežno adversarnem modelu kazenskega postopka je proces iskanja resnice o preteklem dogodku odvisen od sposobnosti obrambe, da aktivno išče in zbira razbremenilne dokaze. Ta sposobnost pa je odvisna od vsaj približne enakosti preiskovalnih orodij/orožij. V položaju, ko imamo na eni strani opravka z neomejenimi finančnimi in drugimi možnostmi državnega aparata, ki so na voljo policiji in tožilstvu, na drugi strani pa posameznika, katerega možnosti, da financira obrambo svoje nedolžnosti, so vselej omejene, pa o enakosti orožij pri zbiranju in zavarovanju dokazov v kazenskem postopku praktično ne moremo govoriti in je ni mogoče na noben način doseči. Ker teoretične predpostavke, na katerih temelji adversarni model kazenskega postopka, v praksi ne držijo, je sodna kontrola oziroma možnost zbiranja in zavarovanja dokazov po uradni dolžnosti s strani preiskovalnega sodnika v okviru sodne preiskave, kot jo pozna tudi slovenski kazenski proces, edini ustrezni mehanizem pri prizadevanju za iskanje objektivne resnice o preteklem dogodku, za katero dejansko ni nobene prave alternative.

Ključne besede: preiskava, pravica do učinkovite obrambe, enakost orožij, adversarni model, dokaz, zbiranje dokaznega gradiva, dokazna hipoteza, neenakost obrambnih možnosti

Title: Defence without an Investigation

Abstract: The process of truth-finding in a predominantly adversarial model of criminal process depends on the defence being able actively to seek out available exculpatory evidence. Indeed, this seems to depend on a rough equality of investigative arms. In a situation in which the state has almost unlimited resources of investigation and an individual is faced with only limited funds that are available to them for their defence, we cannot really speak about the equality of arms. Since the theoretical adversarial procedural assumptions about the equality of investigative arms in pre-trial police investigation do not exist in practice, judicial control and supervision over evidence collection and ex officio possibility of investigative judge to collect the relevant evidence during court investigation, as also known in the Slovenian criminal procedure, seems to be the only plausible tool in the process of truth-finding, for which there is no alternative.

Key words: court investigation, right to effective defence, equality of investigative arms, adversarial model, evidence, collection of evidence, evidentiary hypothesis, inequality of defence possibilities

Marjan Pogačnik

Povzetek: Namen prispevka je predstaviti povečanje učinkovitosti kazenskega pravosodja skozi prenovo poslovnih procesov in reformo kazenskega pravosodja. Predstavljeni so tudi pristopi, ki jih je v zadnjih letih razvilo in implementiralo Okrožno sodišče v Ljubljani. Načrt prenove poslovnih procesov je Okrožno sodišče v Ljubljani pripravilo že junija 2013. Ta je v pretežnem delu že implementiran, gre pa za formiranje tako imenovanega predobravnavnega referata, dodeljevanja določenih zadev s časovnim zamikom, določitev specializiranih sodnikov za reševanje zadev s področja mladoletniške, družinske in spolne kriminalitete ter za projekt pospešenega obravnavanja določenih kazenskih zadev (postopek fast track) in navsezadnje za organizacijske spremembe okrajnega kazenskega in prekrškovnega področja znotraj sodnega okrožja. Novela Zakona o sodiščih (ZS-I) je v organizacijo okrožnega kazenskega sodstva prinesla pomembno novost, in sicer uvedbo specializiranih oddelkov za sojenje v zahtevnejših zadevah organiziranega in gospodarskega kriminala, terorizma, korupcijskih in drugih podobnih kaznivih dejanj. Specializirani oddelek na Okrožnem sodišču v Ljubljani šteje skupno 18 sodnikov; pregled numeričnih podatkov, predvsem pa njihova povezava z obsežnostjo in pravno zapletenostjo večine zadev, vodi v nujen zaključek, da je specializirani oddelek na robu kolapsa. V zasledovanju cilja, da se zagotovi ažurno, strnjeno in kakovostno obravnavo zadev, avtor v zaključku prispevka predstavi pobude in predloge Okrožnega sodišča v Ljubljani resornemu ministrstvu v zvezi z načrtovanimi spremembami procesnega zakona, tj. Zakona o kazenskem postopku.

Ključne besede: učinkovitost kazenskega sodstva, prenova poslovnega procesa, pospešeno obravnavanje kazenskih zadev, specializirano kazensko sodstvo, organizacijske spremembe sodišča

Title: Increase of Efficiency of Criminal Judiciary through Renovation of Business Processes and Reform of Criminal Justice

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present an increase in the efficiency of criminal judiciary through renovation of business processes and reform of criminal justice. Furthermore, the article also presents certain approaches that have been developed and implemented by the Ljubljana District Court in recent years. The plan for renovation of business processes has been prepared by the Ljubljana District Court in June 2013 and has already been implemented for the most part. It mainly regulates the formation of the so-called pre-trial proceeding, appointment of certain cases with a time lag, designation of specialised judges for solving cases regarding minors, family and sexual crime, project of accelerated treatment of certain criminal cases (fast track procedure), and organisational changes for local criminal and offence application within the judicial district. The amendment to the Courts Act (ZS-I) introduced an important novelty, in particular to the organisation of the district criminal judiciary, namely the establishment of specialised departments for trials of more complex cases of organised and economic crimes, terrorism, corruption and other similar criminal offences. However, a specialised department at the Ljubljana District Court counts a total of 18 judges, and a review of numerical data, in particular their connection to the scale and legal complexity of most cases, leads to the conclusion that the specialised department is on the verge of collapse. Pursuing the goal of ensuring prompt, comprehensive and high-quality handling of cases, the author in conclusion of the article presents the initiatives and proposals of the Ljubljana District Court submitted to the relevant ministry in relation to the changes being planned in the procedural law, i.e. in the Criminal Procedure Act.

Key words: efficiency of criminal judiciary, renovation of business process, accelerated handling of criminal cases, specialised criminal judiciary, organisational changes of the court

Sabina Zgaga

Povzetek: Prispevek prikazuje rešitvi iz mednarodnega kazenskega prava, ki bi ju bilo mogoče implementirati tudi v slovenski kazenski postopek. Najprej se ukvarja z možnostjo uvedbe posebnega naroka za izrek kazenske sankcije in za odločitev o povezanih vprašanjih, ki se praviloma postavijo šele ob izreku (obsodilne) sodbe, nato pa obravnava še vlogo oškodovanca kaznivega dejanja v kazenskem postopku, zlasti z vidika njegove pravice do pravnih sredstev. Čeprav Rimski statut določa pravila kazenskega postopka za najhujša kazniva dejanja, ni mogoče a priori izključiti uporabnosti nekaterih njegovih rešitev tudi za kazenski postopek, ki se vodi po ZKP zaradi kaznivih dejanj iz vseh poglavij kazenskega zakona. Zaradi narave mednarodnih hudodelstev se je v mednarodnem kazenskem pravu uveljavilo ločeno odločanje o teh vprašanjih in obrazloženo odločanje o njih ter ni mogoče zanemariti pozitivnih učinkov take ureditve; Mednarodno kazensko sodišče (MKS) podrobno odloča o vprašanjih, ki se v običajnem kazenskem postopku zdijo akcesorne oziroma celo sekundarne narave. Obrazloženost odločitve o kazenski sankciji in drugih vprašanjih pa ni nujna le v razmerju do obdolženca, ampak v primeru premoženjskopravnega zahtevka tudi v razmerju do samega oškodovanca. Hkrati bi dvodelnost glavne obravnave in ločitev odločanja o teh vprašanjih lahko olajšala uvedbo vsaj delne pravice oškodovanca do pritožbe.

Ključne besede: oškodovanec, pravica do pritožbe, pravica do povrnitve škode, narok za izrek kazenske sankcije

Title: Attempt to Implement International Criminal Law Experience into Slovenian Criminal Procedure

Abstract: The paper introduces two international criminal solutions that could also be implemented into Slovenian criminal procedure. It firstly discussed the possibility of a special sentencing hearing, which could also be used for adjudicating other issues, usually relevant from the pronouncement of a judgment or other decision, ending the criminal procedure. Afterwards, the procedure presents a related issue: the role of the victim in the criminal procedure, especially from the position of its right to legal remedies. Despite the fact that the Rome Statute regulates rules of criminal procedure for core crimes, the use of certain solutions from such criminal procedure in a typical criminal procedure cannot be a priori excluded. Namely, the nature of core crimes influenced separated and more detailed discussion about issues that are usually considered of secondary or accessorial nature in criminal procedure. Therefore, positive effects of such regulation cannot be ignored. Namely, detailed statement of reasons for court''s decisions is not necessary only because of the defendant, but also, in case of the decision on victim''s compensation, because of the victim. Furthermore, the separation of the main criminal hearing and the sentencing hearing could make it easier to introduce at least the victim''s limited right to an appeal against the judgment.

Key words: victim, right to appeal, right to compensation, sentencing hearing

Primož Gorkič

Povzetek: Prispevek predstavi nekatere pristope k modelom pogajalskih mehanizmov v kazenskem postopku in skozi njihovo prizmo razčleni slovensko ureditev. Kljub tradiciji mešanega postopka ima slovenska ureditev značilnosti, ki jo približujejo ureditvi pogajanj o priznanju krivde v anglo-ameriških postopkih. Zaradi tega je slovenski kazenski postopek izpostavljen tveganjem, ki takšne pristope spremljajo. Ta izhajajo zlasti iz poudarjene pasivizacije sodišča in šibkega preizkusa sklenjenih sporazumov o priznanju krivde. Na drugi strani so se v nekaterih evropskih sistemih, na primer v Angliji in Nemčiji, oblikovale rešitve, ki pogajanja umeščajo v samo sojenje oziroma glavno obravnavo in omogočajo aktivno sodelovanje sodnika pri samih pogajanjih. Takšne rešitve krepijo transparentnost pogajanj ter zmanjšujejo negotovost obdolženčevih prognoz izida kazenskega postopka in tveganja za pravno ali dejansko napačne sodbe.

Ključne besede: pogajanja o priznanju krivde, sporazum o priznanju krivde, sodišče, obdolženec, predobravnavni narok, sklep o sprejemu priznanja krivde

Title: Alternatives to the Slovenian Model of Plea Bargaining

Abstract: The article outlines some of the typologies on negotiated justice mechanisms in criminal procedure. These are then used to analyse plea bargaining and agreements under Slovenian Criminal Procedure Act. Even though Slovenian criminal procedure belongs to a tradition of mixed adversarial-inquisitorial procedure, it adopted several features similar to the US-style of plea bargaining. This makes it vulnerable to the same shortcomings as were observed in the US criminal justice systems. At the same time, some European criminal justice systems, in particular in England and Germany, developed solutions that incorporate plea bargaining into the trial itself. They allow for a more active judicial participation in the bargaining process. Such solutions contribute to a more transparent and accountable bargaining process, thus reducing the uncertainties faced by the defendant and the possibilities of a wrongful conviction.

Key words: plea bargaining, plea agreement, court, defendant, pre-trial hearing, acceptance of plea agreement

 
Splošni pogoji | Izjava o varstvu podatkov