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letnik 2017, številka 5, 1. 8. 2017
> Kazalo

NA NASLOVNICI

Primernost informacijske podlage kot predpostavke pravila podjetniške presoje

Peter Podgorelec

Povzetek: Primerna informacijska podlaga odločitve je ključna predpostavka pravila podjetniške presoje (angl. business judgment rule), ki si počasi utira pot tudi v slovenskem korporacijskem pravu, čeprav ni posebej uzakonjeno. Primernost pomeni, da je obseg informacij odvisen od posebnosti konkretne odločitvene situacije, zlasti od pomena odločitve za družbo. Pri oblikovanju odločitvene podlage pa je treba upoštevati tudi uveljavljena spoznanja ekonomskih in poslovnih ved. Sodišče presoja, ali je član organa vodenja ali nadzora lahko razumno domneval, da ravna na podlagi primernih informacij. Obramba s sklicevanjem na tretjo osebo kot vir informacij je lahko uspešna le, če je imela tretja oseba ustrezne strokovne kvalifikacije, če je bila neodvisna in če je imela na voljo vse potrebne informacije. Odločevalec mora prepričljivost informacije oziroma nasveta tretje osebe preizkusiti z vso potrebno skrbnostjo.

Ključne besede: odškodninska odgovornost, člani organa vodenja ali nadzora, pravilo podjetniške presoje, primerne informacije

Title: Information Basis Adequacy as Key Requirement of the Business Judgment Rule

Abstract: Adequate information basis for decision-making is a key requirement of the business judgment rule, which is slowly making its way in the Slovenian Corporate Law as well, even if not enacted by law. Adequacy means that the scope of information depends on the specificities of a concrete decision situation, particularly on the impact of decision-making on the company. In developing a basis for decision-making, the established business management findings need to be accounted for as well. It is the court which decides whether the management or supervisory body member was able to reasonably believe that they acted on the basis of adequate information. Defence with reference to a third party as a source of information can only be successful if the third party was professionally qualified, independent and had all necessary information available. The decision-maker must verify the credibility of information or third party advice with due diligence.

Key words: civil liability, management or supervisory body members, business judgment rule, adequate information

Posojilo družbeniku: zakonodajalčev porozni ukrep s pomirljivim zaključkom

Gregor Drnovšek

Matic Kramar

Povzetek: Avtorja obravnavata pravne učinke dopolnitve pravila o ohranjanju kapitala iz prvega odstavka 495. člena ZGD-1. Omenjena določba je bila bistveno dopolnjena z novelama ZGD-1I in ZGD-1J predvsem v zvezi s posojili, ki jih družba odobri svojim družbenikom in nekaterim drugim osebam. Obrazložitvi predlogov novel ZGD-1I in ZGD-1J poudarjata varstvo upnikov, nova dopolnitev pa je bila umeščena v pravilo o ohranjanju kapitala, torej je postala sestavni del tistega pravila, ki skozi celotno življenje družbe varuje njeno premoženje pred posegi družbenikov in je prvenstveno namenjeno prav varstvu upnikov. Nova dopolnitev torej v okviru načela ohranjanja kapitala širi (dopolnjuje) dosedanje varstvo upnikov in se nanaša le na določene pravne posle, ki bi jih družba sklenila z določenimi osebami.

Ključne besede: družba z omejeno odgovornostjo, ohranjanje kapitala, vezane rezerve, posojila družbe družbeniku, varovanje upnikov, lastni kapital, najnižji znesek osnovnega kapitala

Title: Upstream Loan: Lawmaker’s Porous Measure Leading to a Reassuring Close

Abstract: The authors discuss legal effects of supplement of capital maintenance rule from the first paragraph of Article 495 of ZGD-1. The aforementioned provision was significantly amended through amendments ZGD-1I and ZGD-1J, namely with respect to the loans granted by the company to its members and some other persons. Explanation of motions for amendments ZGD-1I and ZGD-1J underlines safeguarding of creditors. As the new amendment was placed within the capital maintenance rule it became an integral part of the exact rule which throughout the company''s life cycle safeguards its assets against encroachments by its members and is primarily intended for safeguarding of creditors. Therefore, in the context of capital maintenance rule, the new amendment broadens (supplements) the existing regime of safeguarding of creditors and it pertains solely to specific legal transactions entered into by the company with specific persons.

Key words: limited liability company, capital maintenance, tied-up reserves, loans by the company to the company member, safeguarding of creditors, equity, minimum amount of share capital

Nekatere dileme odvzema protipravne premoženjske koristi s poudarkom na gospodarskih kaznivih dejanjih

Vanja Verdel Kokol

Povzetek: Aktualno stanje obravnavanja kaznivih dejanj, zlasti gospodarskih, korupcijskih in tudi drugih, še posebno tistih, ki spadajo na področje organizirane kriminalitete, izraža trend osredotočenosti pri izrekanju obsodilnih sodb storilcem teh kaznivih dejanj ne zgolj na (dolgotrajne) prostostne kazni, temveč vse bolj na odvzem protipravno pridobljenih koristi. Kljub vsem spremembam kazenskopravne, tako materialne kot procesne zakonodaje, institut odvzema premoženjske koristi v našem pravu še vedno ne dosega zakonskega namena in je v tem pogledu še zmeraj premalo učinkovit, odločanje o tem vprašanju pa vezano na prenekatere dileme. Kot nezadostno učinkovitost je treba šteti zlasti nedosledno uporabo kazenskega materialnega prava, ne dovolj izkoriščene procesne mehanizme in navsezadnje premajhen izplen izvršitve pravnomočnih sodb. V prispevku je uvodoma predstavljena pravna podlaga za odvzem premoženjske koristi, vključno z ustavnopravnimi merili, ki upravičujejo odvzem s kaznivim dejanjem pridobljenih koristi. S vprašanjem pravne narave obravnavanega instituta pa se neizbežno povezuje vprašanje ugotavljanja obsega premoženjske koristi, ki je tako v teoriji kot v praksi posebno problematično. Nadalje je v prispevku obravnavano razmerje med ukrepom odvzema premoženjske koristi in premoženjskopravnim zahtevkom oškodovanca s kritičnim pogledom na aktualno zakonsko ureditev. Posebne pozornosti pa je v luči najnovejše sodne prakse deležno vprašanje ločenosti premoženja družbe od premoženja njenih družbenikov. V sklepnem delu prispevka so izpostavljene še nekatere procesnopravne dileme, povezane zlasti z zac?asnim zavarovanjem zahtevka za odvzem premoženjske koristi v luči pričakovanih sprememb kazenske procesne zakonodaje.

Ključne besede: kazensko pravo, odvzem premoženjske koristi, znak kaznivega dejanja, začasno zavarovanje, obseg premoženjske koristi, premoženjskopravni zahtevek oškodovanca, premoženje družbe, premoženje družbenikov

Title: Certain Dilemmas Regarding the Deprivation of Illegal Proceeds, with an Emphasis on Economic Offences

Abstract: The state of the art of dealing with criminal offenses, in particular with economic, corruption, as well as other types of criminal offenses, especially those that fall within the sphere of organized crime, reflects the trend of focusing not only on (long-term) prison sentences, but more and more on the withdrawal of unlawfully acquired benefits. Despite all the changes in the criminal law, both substantive and procedural, the institute for the deprivation of proceeds in our law still does not achieve the legal purpose, and in this respect it is still insufficiently effective, and deciding on this issue is linked to a number of dilemmas. Insufficient effectiveness is reflected primarily in the inconsistent application of criminal substantive law, the underutilization of procedural mechanisms and, ultimately, the under-execution of final judgments. In the article, the legal basis for the deprivation of proceeds, including the constitutional legal criteria, justifying the withdrawal of the acquired benefits from the crime, is presented in the introduction. The question of the legal nature of the institute concerned is inevitably connected with the question of determining the magnitude of the material benefits, which is both problematic in theory and in practice. Furthermore, the article deals with the relationship between the measure of taking away the proceeds and the claims of the injured party with a critical view of the current legislation. However, in the light of the recent case law, special attention is paid to the issue of separation of the company''s assets from the assets of its members. In the final part of the paper, some procedural legal dilemmas related to the temporary securing of a claim for the withdrawal of proceeds in the light of anticipated changes in criminal procedural legislation are also exposed.

Key words: criminal law, confiscation, proceeds from crime, element of criminal offence, temporary securing, magnitude of material benefits, property damage claim, company''s assets, assets of company''s members

Dohodninska obravnava naknadnih vplačil - davčnopolitično ali ustavnopravno vprašanje?

Jernej Podlipnik

Povzetek: V eni od nedavnih sodb je Upravno sodišče Republike Slovenije odločilo, da je obdavčitev oziroma neobdavčitev naknadnih vplačil zgolj davčnopolitično, ne davčnopravno vprašanje. Avtor v članku temu stališču nasprotuje, ker meni, da se z obdavčitvijo naknadnih vplačil krši temeljno ustavnopravno načelo na področju davčnega prava - načelo plačevanja davkov po ekonomski sposobnosti, iz katerega je na področju obdavčitve dohodka izpeljano objektivno neto načelo. To načelo po stališču Ustavnega sodišča Republike Slovenije zakonodajalcu nalaga, da z davkom na dohodek obdavči le dohodek, ki pomeni povečanje premoženja v določenem obdobju.

Ključne besede: davki, naknadna vplačila, načelo plačevanja davkov po ekonomski sposobnosti, objektivno neto načelo, davčna politika, davčno pravo

Title: Are Subsequent Payments to Equity from Personal Income Tax Perspective Tax Policy or Constitutional Law Issue?

Abstract: In one of the recent judgements, the Slovenian Administrative Court has ruled that taxation or non-taxation of subsequent payments to equity is merely a tax policy question and not a tax law issue. In this article, the author argues that the view of the Slovenian Administrative Court is incorrect, because it violates the general constitutional tax principle - ability-to-pay principle and the objective net principle, which is derived from it in the field of taxing income. According to the view of the Slovenian Constitutional Court, this principle requires that only income (increase in assets over a certain period) can be taxed with income tax.

Key words: taxes, subsequent payments to equity, ability-to-pay principle, objective net principle, tax policy, tax law

In-house naročila, če je ponudnik odvisna družba več naročnikov

Vesna Kranjc

Povzetek: Vprašanji: 1. Ali so izpolnjeni pogoji, da pravna oseba s svojimi ustanovitelji (vsi so hčerinske družbe določene mestne občine) sklepa posle neposredno, brez izvedbe postopkov javnega naročanja, torej po pravilih za in-house naročila?
2. Ali so izpolnjeni pogoji, da določena oseba sklepa posle neposredno z mestno občino, ki je ustanovitelj vseh njegovih petih ustanoviteljev?

Title: In-house Orders if the Provider is an Affiliated Company of Several Clients

VSEBINA

Peter Podgorelec

Povzetek: Primerna informacijska podlaga odločitve je ključna predpostavka pravila podjetniške presoje (angl. business judgment rule), ki si počasi utira pot tudi v slovenskem korporacijskem pravu, čeprav ni posebej uzakonjeno. Primernost pomeni, da je obseg informacij odvisen od posebnosti konkretne odločitvene situacije, zlasti od pomena odločitve za družbo. Pri oblikovanju odločitvene podlage pa je treba upoštevati tudi uveljavljena spoznanja ekonomskih in poslovnih ved. Sodišče presoja, ali je član organa vodenja ali nadzora lahko razumno domneval, da ravna na podlagi primernih informacij. Obramba s sklicevanjem na tretjo osebo kot vir informacij je lahko uspešna le, če je imela tretja oseba ustrezne strokovne kvalifikacije, če je bila neodvisna in če je imela na voljo vse potrebne informacije. Odločevalec mora prepričljivost informacije oziroma nasveta tretje osebe preizkusiti z vso potrebno skrbnostjo.

Ključne besede: odškodninska odgovornost, člani organa vodenja ali nadzora, pravilo podjetniške presoje, primerne informacije

Title: Information Basis Adequacy as Key Requirement of the Business Judgment Rule

Abstract: Adequate information basis for decision-making is a key requirement of the business judgment rule, which is slowly making its way in the Slovenian Corporate Law as well, even if not enacted by law. Adequacy means that the scope of information depends on the specificities of a concrete decision situation, particularly on the impact of decision-making on the company. In developing a basis for decision-making, the established business management findings need to be accounted for as well. It is the court which decides whether the management or supervisory body member was able to reasonably believe that they acted on the basis of adequate information. Defence with reference to a third party as a source of information can only be successful if the third party was professionally qualified, independent and had all necessary information available. The decision-maker must verify the credibility of information or third party advice with due diligence.

Key words: civil liability, management or supervisory body members, business judgment rule, adequate information

Gregor Drnovšek, Matic Kramar

Povzetek: Avtorja obravnavata pravne učinke dopolnitve pravila o ohranjanju kapitala iz prvega odstavka 495. člena ZGD-1. Omenjena določba je bila bistveno dopolnjena z novelama ZGD-1I in ZGD-1J predvsem v zvezi s posojili, ki jih družba odobri svojim družbenikom in nekaterim drugim osebam. Obrazložitvi predlogov novel ZGD-1I in ZGD-1J poudarjata varstvo upnikov, nova dopolnitev pa je bila umeščena v pravilo o ohranjanju kapitala, torej je postala sestavni del tistega pravila, ki skozi celotno življenje družbe varuje njeno premoženje pred posegi družbenikov in je prvenstveno namenjeno prav varstvu upnikov. Nova dopolnitev torej v okviru načela ohranjanja kapitala širi (dopolnjuje) dosedanje varstvo upnikov in se nanaša le na določene pravne posle, ki bi jih družba sklenila z določenimi osebami.

Ključne besede: družba z omejeno odgovornostjo, ohranjanje kapitala, vezane rezerve, posojila družbe družbeniku, varovanje upnikov, lastni kapital, najnižji znesek osnovnega kapitala

Title: Upstream Loan: Lawmaker’s Porous Measure Leading to a Reassuring Close

Abstract: The authors discuss legal effects of supplement of capital maintenance rule from the first paragraph of Article 495 of ZGD-1. The aforementioned provision was significantly amended through amendments ZGD-1I and ZGD-1J, namely with respect to the loans granted by the company to its members and some other persons. Explanation of motions for amendments ZGD-1I and ZGD-1J underlines safeguarding of creditors. As the new amendment was placed within the capital maintenance rule it became an integral part of the exact rule which throughout the company''s life cycle safeguards its assets against encroachments by its members and is primarily intended for safeguarding of creditors. Therefore, in the context of capital maintenance rule, the new amendment broadens (supplements) the existing regime of safeguarding of creditors and it pertains solely to specific legal transactions entered into by the company with specific persons.

Key words: limited liability company, capital maintenance, tied-up reserves, loans by the company to the company member, safeguarding of creditors, equity, minimum amount of share capital

Vanja Verdel Kokol

Povzetek: Aktualno stanje obravnavanja kaznivih dejanj, zlasti gospodarskih, korupcijskih in tudi drugih, še posebno tistih, ki spadajo na področje organizirane kriminalitete, izraža trend osredotočenosti pri izrekanju obsodilnih sodb storilcem teh kaznivih dejanj ne zgolj na (dolgotrajne) prostostne kazni, temveč vse bolj na odvzem protipravno pridobljenih koristi. Kljub vsem spremembam kazenskopravne, tako materialne kot procesne zakonodaje, institut odvzema premoženjske koristi v našem pravu še vedno ne dosega zakonskega namena in je v tem pogledu še zmeraj premalo učinkovit, odločanje o tem vprašanju pa vezano na prenekatere dileme. Kot nezadostno učinkovitost je treba šteti zlasti nedosledno uporabo kazenskega materialnega prava, ne dovolj izkoriščene procesne mehanizme in navsezadnje premajhen izplen izvršitve pravnomočnih sodb. V prispevku je uvodoma predstavljena pravna podlaga za odvzem premoženjske koristi, vključno z ustavnopravnimi merili, ki upravičujejo odvzem s kaznivim dejanjem pridobljenih koristi. S vprašanjem pravne narave obravnavanega instituta pa se neizbežno povezuje vprašanje ugotavljanja obsega premoženjske koristi, ki je tako v teoriji kot v praksi posebno problematično. Nadalje je v prispevku obravnavano razmerje med ukrepom odvzema premoženjske koristi in premoženjskopravnim zahtevkom oškodovanca s kritičnim pogledom na aktualno zakonsko ureditev. Posebne pozornosti pa je v luči najnovejše sodne prakse deležno vprašanje ločenosti premoženja družbe od premoženja njenih družbenikov. V sklepnem delu prispevka so izpostavljene še nekatere procesnopravne dileme, povezane zlasti z zac?asnim zavarovanjem zahtevka za odvzem premoženjske koristi v luči pričakovanih sprememb kazenske procesne zakonodaje.

Ključne besede: kazensko pravo, odvzem premoženjske koristi, znak kaznivega dejanja, začasno zavarovanje, obseg premoženjske koristi, premoženjskopravni zahtevek oškodovanca, premoženje družbe, premoženje družbenikov

Title: Certain Dilemmas Regarding the Deprivation of Illegal Proceeds, with an Emphasis on Economic Offences

Abstract: The state of the art of dealing with criminal offenses, in particular with economic, corruption, as well as other types of criminal offenses, especially those that fall within the sphere of organized crime, reflects the trend of focusing not only on (long-term) prison sentences, but more and more on the withdrawal of unlawfully acquired benefits. Despite all the changes in the criminal law, both substantive and procedural, the institute for the deprivation of proceeds in our law still does not achieve the legal purpose, and in this respect it is still insufficiently effective, and deciding on this issue is linked to a number of dilemmas. Insufficient effectiveness is reflected primarily in the inconsistent application of criminal substantive law, the underutilization of procedural mechanisms and, ultimately, the under-execution of final judgments. In the article, the legal basis for the deprivation of proceeds, including the constitutional legal criteria, justifying the withdrawal of the acquired benefits from the crime, is presented in the introduction. The question of the legal nature of the institute concerned is inevitably connected with the question of determining the magnitude of the material benefits, which is both problematic in theory and in practice. Furthermore, the article deals with the relationship between the measure of taking away the proceeds and the claims of the injured party with a critical view of the current legislation. However, in the light of the recent case law, special attention is paid to the issue of separation of the company''s assets from the assets of its members. In the final part of the paper, some procedural legal dilemmas related to the temporary securing of a claim for the withdrawal of proceeds in the light of anticipated changes in criminal procedural legislation are also exposed.

Key words: criminal law, confiscation, proceeds from crime, element of criminal offence, temporary securing, magnitude of material benefits, property damage claim, company''s assets, assets of company''s members

Jernej Podlipnik

Povzetek: V eni od nedavnih sodb je Upravno sodišče Republike Slovenije odločilo, da je obdavčitev oziroma neobdavčitev naknadnih vplačil zgolj davčnopolitično, ne davčnopravno vprašanje. Avtor v članku temu stališču nasprotuje, ker meni, da se z obdavčitvijo naknadnih vplačil krši temeljno ustavnopravno načelo na področju davčnega prava - načelo plačevanja davkov po ekonomski sposobnosti, iz katerega je na področju obdavčitve dohodka izpeljano objektivno neto načelo. To načelo po stališču Ustavnega sodišča Republike Slovenije zakonodajalcu nalaga, da z davkom na dohodek obdavči le dohodek, ki pomeni povečanje premoženja v določenem obdobju.

Ključne besede: davki, naknadna vplačila, načelo plačevanja davkov po ekonomski sposobnosti, objektivno neto načelo, davčna politika, davčno pravo

Title: Are Subsequent Payments to Equity from Personal Income Tax Perspective Tax Policy or Constitutional Law Issue?

Abstract: In one of the recent judgements, the Slovenian Administrative Court has ruled that taxation or non-taxation of subsequent payments to equity is merely a tax policy question and not a tax law issue. In this article, the author argues that the view of the Slovenian Administrative Court is incorrect, because it violates the general constitutional tax principle - ability-to-pay principle and the objective net principle, which is derived from it in the field of taxing income. According to the view of the Slovenian Constitutional Court, this principle requires that only income (increase in assets over a certain period) can be taxed with income tax.

Key words: taxes, subsequent payments to equity, ability-to-pay principle, objective net principle, tax policy, tax law

Mitja Lojen

Povzetek: Avtor se v članku ukvarja z odpoklicem člana uprave. Predstavi celotno normativno ureditev odpoklicev v Zakonu o gospodarskih družbah in interesna razmerja v posameznih kapitalskih družbah, ki so pravna podlaga za veljavno ureditev odpoklica posameznih članov organov. Povzame postopek odpoklica in se opredeli do različnih vzrokov za neveljavnost sklepa o odpoklicu člana uprave. Primerjalnopravno obdela slovensko in nemško ureditev odpoklica. Podrobno predstavi ugotovitve nemške in slovenske teorije ter sodne prakse.

Ključne besede: sklep nadzornega sveta, ničnost sklepa, odpoklic člana uprave, utemeljeni razlogi za odpoklic, huda kršitev obveznosti, nesposobnost vodenja poslov, nezaupnica skupščine, ekonomsko-poslovni razlog, izguba zaupanja

Title: Discharge of a Management Board Member in Slovenian and German Law

Abstract: The article discusses a discharge of a management board member. It presents the regulations in the Slovenian Companies Act regarding discharges and compares them to those in the German Stock Corporation Act and examines the theoretical causes for each article. The discharge procedure and the formal and substantive requirements of a decision of a supervisory board are thoroughly analyzed. Moreover, it compares the Slovenian and German case law and draws conclusions that could be adopted by the Slovenian courts.

Key words: discharge, management board member, decision of a supervisory board, serious breach of obligations, incapability of conducting business, vote of no trust, other economic and business reasons, loss of trust

Aleksij Mužina, Žiga Rejc

Povzetek: Po mnenju avtorjev prispevka je dosedanja, pri domačih piscih univerzalno sprejeta razlaga določb SPZ o posledicah prenehanja stavbne pravice zmotna. V celoti namreč - kljub njihovim ugotovitvam, da v tujini praviloma ni tako in da naj bi bile nekatere določbe SPZ o stavbni pravici "nejasne" - izhaja iz naziranja, da je določba drugega odstavka 263. člena SPZ, ki se glasi "lastnik nepremičnine mora imetniku stavbne pravice ob prenehanju plačati dogovorjeno nadomestilo, ki ne sme biti manjše od polovice povečanja tržne vrednosti nepremičnine", kogentna oziroma da SPZ ne dopušča situacije, ko bi bil mogoč dogovor o nadomestilu pod navedeno višino. Po prepričanju avtorjev je v dani zmoti mogoče identificirati ključno pomanjkljivost dosedanje splošno sprejete razlage določb SPZ o stavbni pravici, ki v praksi povzroča številne nejasnosti in negotovost. Zato bi bilo treba v prihodnje dosedanjo razlago SPZ v tem delu celovito revidirati ob (pravilnem) izhodišču dispozitivne narave predmetne zakonske določbe - ne pa spreminjati zakona.

Ključne besede: stavbna pravica, Stvarnopravni zakonik (SPZ), superficies, nadomestilo, prenehanje, prenehanje stavbne pravice

Title: Cessation of the Right of Superficies - the Question of Compensation

Abstract: In Slovenia, we have introduced the right of superficies with the Law of Property Code (Stvarnopravni zakonik, SPZ), passed in 2002. Second Paragraph of Article 263 of SPZ states that at cessation of the right of superficies, the owner of the property (land) has to pay to its holder compensation in the minimum amount of one half of the increase in the market price of the property. In numerous papers, articles and commentaries on the law that have been published in Slovenia within the last 15 years, this legal rule has been universally regarded as ius cogens - despite the fact that the authors have established it already by themselves, that foreign legal literature (with much longer tradition in this aspect), on the contrary, interprets similar legal rules as dispositive. This paper argues that such interpretation of regulation of the right of superficies, until now commonly used in Slovenia, is incorrect. Consequently, there is a need for a thorough review of past literature explaining the right of superficies in SPZ.

Key words: right of the superficies, cessation, Law of Property Code, Slovenia

Eva Vihar Kranjec

Povzetek: V praksi so tožbeni zahtevki družbenikov za prenehanje družbe redki, saj se navadno družbeniki za prenehanje družbe dogovorijo sami ali pa družba preneha obstajati z zaključkom postopka tako imenovane prisilne likvidacije. V prispevku so predstavljene predpostavke za uspešen tožbeni zahtevek in obravnavani razlogi, ki upravičujejo zahtevo za prenehanje družbe. Ti so zaradi življenjske pestrosti lahko različni, zato jih Zakon o gospodarskih družbah (ZGD-1) ne omejuje. Po pregledu, kdo je upravičen za vložitev tožbe za prenehanje, so navedeni primeri iz sodne prakse, kdaj se aktivna legitimacija za tako tožbo pridobi in kdaj izgubi, ter kaj storiti v primeru sočasno vložene tožbe za izključitev družbenika in tožbe tega družbenika za prenehanje družbe. Prispevek ugotavlja tudi, ali imajo družbeniki možnost izbire glede izključitve družbenika, izstopa iz družbe in tožbe za prenehanje ali pa jim je izbira omejena glede na dane okoliščine posameznega primera. Zaradi redkosti tožb za prenehanje družbe in v nekaterih delih nasprotujočih si stališč pravne teorije in sodne prakse je včasih težko izluščiti, kako se tožbeni zahtevek za prenehanje družbe pravilno glasi. Prav tako se pojavljajo vprašanja, ali je poleg zahteve za prenehanje družbe treba zahtevati tudi razvezo družbene pogodbe, od kdaj takšna razveza družbene pogodbe učinkuje oziroma kdaj nastopi trenutek, ko družba na podlagi sodne odločbe preneha. Zagotovo pa predlog za likvidacijo družbe po večinskem stališču ne more biti predmet tožbenega zahtevka, saj je likvidacijo mogoče zahtevati šele na podlagi pravnomočne sodne odločbe o prenehanju družbe, poleg tega pa se ta predlog obravnava v nepravdnem, in ne v pravdnem postopku.

Ključne besede: statusno pravo, prenehanje družbe, tožba družbenika

Title: Suit for the Dissolution of a Company

Abstract: In legal practice, the claims of company members for the dissolution of their company seldom occur. It is more common for company members to agree on a voluntary termination of a company or the company''s existence is also often ended by a so-called compulsory liquidation. The article presents the requirements for a successful lawsuit for the dissolution of a company and discusses the acceptable reasons justifying the plaintiff''s request. These can be very different due to the diversity of life and are therefore not limited by the Companies Act (ZGD-1). The article explains who is entitled as a plaintiff in a lawsuit for the dissolution of a company and cites examples of court cases on the subject of obtaining and losing active legitimation for such actions, as well as what to do when cases for the exclusion of a shareholder and that same shareholder''s suit for the dissolution of the company are in progress at the same time. The article also explores whether company members are free to choose between (1) the exclusion or withdrawal of the company member from the company and (2) the lawsuit for the dissolution of a company, or is their freedom of choice limited depending on the circumstances of each case? It is sometimes difficult to determine how a claim for the dissolution of a company should be formed correctly. This is due to the rarity of such actions in legal practice and sometimes contradictory positions of legal theory and jurisprudence. Furthermore, questions arise as to whether it is necessary to claim the termination of a company contract in addition to the claim for the dissolution of a company. The question of when the termination of a company contract and the dissolution of a company on the basis of a court decision takes effect must also be answered. However, in a majority opinion, a proposal for the liquidation of a company cannot be the subject of a plaintiff''s claim, since liquidation can be requested only on the basis of a final court decision on the dissolution of a company. Also, company liquidation proposals are dealt with in non-litigation court procedures as opposed to the claims for the dissolution of a company which are a classic litigation procedure type of court cases.

Key words: corporate law, dissolution of a company, company member''s suit

Janez Novak

Povzetek: V članku je obravnavan primer javne uslužbenke, ki je bila na nekem slovenskem ministrstvu za določen čas zaposlena kar devet (9!) let. Organa delodajalca, ki odločata o delovnih razmerjih, nista ugodila njenemu zahtevku na ugotovitev, da je bila od sklenitve prve pogodbe o zaposlitvi v delovnem razmerju za nedoločen čas in da jo pristojni organ imenuje v ustrezen naziv in plačilni razred. Nato je sprožila delovni spor. Na sodišču prve stopnje je bila uspešna z zahtevkom na ugotovitev, da je bila v delovnem razmerju za nedoločen čas od 6. 12. 2006 dalje in da ji mora tožena stranka izročiti v podpis pogodbo o zaposlitvi z imenovanjem v naziv višji svetovalec III. Zavrnjen je bil zahtevek za imenovanje v naziv višji svetovalec I. Po pritožbi tožene stranke, odločitvi sodišča druge stopnje, predlogu tožnice za dopustitev revizije, delni dopustitvi revizije, odločbi revizijskega sodišča in ponovni odločbi višjega sodišča je bila tožnica uspešna le deloma. Ker je bilo dokazano nezakonito veriženje pogodb o zaposlitvi za določen čas, je bila tožnica tudi oškodovana. Kljub direktivam Evropske unije in odločbam Sodišča Evropske unije ni bilo odločeno o celotni škodi, ki je tožnici nastala. Ta obsega predvsem imenovanje v ustrezni naziv, razvrstitev v ustrezen plačilni razred, napredovanje in morebitne druge zahtevke zaradi nezakonitega veriženja pogodb o zaposlitvi.

Ključne besede: delovno razmerje za določen čas, nezakonito veriženje pogodb, projektno delo, imenovanje v naziv, odškodnina

Title: Fixed-Term Employment Relationship: A Practical Example

Abstract: The article discusses the case of a civil servant who was employed by a certain Slovenian ministry for an indefinite period of time for nine (9) years. The employers'' bodies that decide on employment relationships did not comply with her claim for finding that she had been in an employment relationship for an indefinite period and that the competent authority appoints her in an appropriate title and salary grade. She then began a labour dispute. In the first-instance court she succeeded in claiming that she was in an employment relationship for an indefinite period from 6 December 2006, and also that the defendant must hand over an employment contract for signature for appointment to the post Senior Advisor I. The application for appointment to the title of senior Advisor I was rejected. The defendant filed an appeal. It was decided by the second-instance court. The complainant''s proposal for the admission of the revision was partially permitted. It was decided by the Court of Revision and by the second-instance court. The plaintiff succeeded partially. It has been proved that there has been an illegal chaining of fixed term employment contracts, and the claimant was therefore incurred damage. Despite the European Union directives and the decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the total damage caused to the claimant was not decided. The damage primarily consist of the appointment to the appropriate title, ranking in the appropriate salary class, advancing, and any other claims arising from the illegal chaining of employment contracts.

Key words: fixed-term employment relationship, illegal chaining of contracts, project work, appointment to title, compensation

Vesna Sodja, Maja Koršič Potočnik

Povzetek: Klavzula ključ v roke v slovenskem gradbenem pravu pomeni enega od načinov določitve pogodbene cene in ne določitve obsega pogodbenih obveznosti, kot je za klavzulo turnkey običajno v tujini. Zato ne definira obsega pogodbenih obveznosti izvajalca, temveč določa, katera dela so vključena v pogodbeno ceno, obseg pogodbenih obveznosti pa mora biti posebej definiran v pogodbi kot pogodbeni obseg del ali predmet gradbene pogodbe. Tolmačenje te klavzule, ki ga je zavzela slovenska pravna teorija, je pripeljalo v situacijo, ki je unikum na pravnem področju in ki tako izvajalcem kot tudi naročnikom povzroča številne preglavice pri vnaprejšnji konkretizaciji stroškov gradbenega projekta. Vendar pa po mnenju avtoric sprejeto tolmačenje ni ustrezno oziroma nima podlage v veljavnih predpisih, zaradi česar bi bilo na mestu, da se sodna praksa v zvezi s klavzulo ključ v roke v bližnji prihodnosti spremeni.

Ključne besede: gradbena pogodba, klavzula ključ v roke, obseg obveznosti, pogodbena cena

Title: Development of Turnkey Clause and the Meaning in Slovenian and International Business Practice

Abstract: In the Slovenian construction law, the "turnkey" clause means one of the manners of determining the contractual price and not determining the scope of the contractual obligations as is usually the case with the "turnkey" clause in other countries. Due to the above, this clause does not define the scope of contractual obligations of the contractor but defines which works are included in the contractual price, while the scope of contractual obligations has to be defined in a separate contract as contractual scope of works or subject of the construction contract. The way Slovenian legal theory decided to interpret this clause led to a situation that is unique in the legal field and causes numerous problems to contractors as well as clients in determining the construction project costs in advance. However, the authors believe that such interpretation is not appropriate and has no foundation in applicable regulations, which is why it would be reasonable for judicial practice regarding the "turnkey" clause to change in the near future.

Key words: construction contract, turnkey clause, the scope of obligations, contractual price

Iz prakse za prakso

Vesna Kranjc

Povzetek: Vprašanji: 1. Ali so izpolnjeni pogoji, da pravna oseba s svojimi ustanovitelji (vsi so hčerinske družbe določene mestne občine) sklepa posle neposredno, brez izvedbe postopkov javnega naročanja, torej po pravilih za in-house naročila?
2. Ali so izpolnjeni pogoji, da določena oseba sklepa posle neposredno z mestno občino, ki je ustanovitelj vseh njegovih petih ustanoviteljev?

Title: In-house Orders if the Provider is an Affiliated Company of Several Clients

Recenzija

Zvone Vodovnik

Povzetek: Dr. Rado Bohinc je lani pri založbi Fakultete za družbene vede Univerze v Ljubljani izdal svojo najnovejšo znanstveno monografijo Družbena odgovornost. Izšla je 30 let po izidu njegove prve monografije Lastnina in upravljanje leta 1987 pri Gospodarskem vestniku. Oba časovna mejnika in tudi vsebina monografij upravičeno vzbujajo zanimanje javnosti o avtorju in njegovem delu.

Sodna praksa RS

Povzetek: Obdolženec se s priznanjem krivde ne odpove ugotavljanju dejanskega stanja, temveč se odpove ugotavljanju dejanskega stanja na podlagi dokazov, izvedenih na glavni obravnavi. Z drugimi besedami, predsednik senata dokaze ocenjuje na enak način kot po opravljeni glavni obravnavi: z vestno presojo vsakega dokaza posebej in v zvezi z drugimi dokazi. Na tak način preveri, ali je o krivdi, ki jo je obdolženec priznal, prepričan ali ne.

Title: Abuse of Position under Article 244 of the Criminal Code

Povzetek: Bistvena lastnost neenakomerno razporejenega delovnega časa je odstopanje od npr. klasične razporeditve delovnega časa 40 ur na teden, 8 ur na dan, od ponedeljka do petka, da delavec v režimu neenakomerne razporeditve dela tudi po več kot 8 ur na dan, več ali manj kot 5 dni v tednu itd. Vendar je lahko tudi v neenakomerno razporejenem delovnem času določen način razporeditve, ki je fiksen po svoji naravi in s tem predvidljiv (npr. delo vsak drugi dan, ali določen z letnim oziroma mesečnim razporedom). če je razporeditev delovnega časa sistemsko jasna in ima vnaprej razviden način razporeditve, se da tudi vnaprej določiti dneve, na katere delavec običajno dela. To je ves čas trdil revident, tožena stranka pa se je branila z argumentom "fleksibilnosti" glede na sprotne delovne potrebe v času dela prostih dni. Ta argument zaradi tavtologije po presoji revizijskega sodišča ne zdrži, saj tudi pri enakomerni porazdelitvi delovnega časa na dela proste dneve dela ni in zato enako ni potrebe po delu delavcev pri enakomerni porazdelitvi delovnega časa.

Title: Flexible Working Time Scheduling

 
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