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letnik 2016, številka 6-7, 1. 10. 2016
> Kazalo

NA NASLOVNICI

Agencijski in napoteni delavci

Katarina Kresal Šoltes

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava delovnopravne vidike ureditve agencijskega dela (temporary agency work) ter napotitve delavcev v okviru svobode opravljanja storitev na enotnem trgu (posting of workers), s poudarkom na novostih iz slovenske zakonodaje in predloga revizije Direktive 96/71/ES o napotitvi delavcev na delo v okviru opravljanja storitev.

Ključne besede: EU, napotitev delavcev, čezmejno opravljanje storitev, agencija za zagotavljanje začasnega dela, načelo enakega obravnavanja, Direktiva 96/71/ES

Title: Temporary Agency Work and Posting of Workers

Abstract: The article deals with labour law aspects of the regulation of temporary agency work and posting of workers in the Internal Market, with particular emphasis on Slovenian legislation novelties and the proposal for the revision of the Directive 96/71/ES concerning the posting of workers in the framework of the provision of services.

Key words: EU, posting of workers, cross-border provision of services, temporary work agency, the principle of equal treatment, Directive 96/71/ES

Korporativno upravljanje v javnem sektorju v Republiki Sloveniji

Rado Bohinc

Povzetek: V prispevku je najprej predstavljena zakonska ureditev pravnih oseb javnega sektorja, nato korporativnega upravljanja v javnem sektorju primerjano z upravljanjem z državnimi naložbami v okviru SDH. Predstavljena je primerjava nekaterih vidikov korporativnega upravljanja (ustanoviteljske pristojnosti, pristojnosti organov, ureditev imenovanja in odpoklica ter odgovornosti) med naslednjimi pravnimi osebami javnega sektorja: Slovenski državni holding, Javna agencija, javni sklad, javni zavod. Predlagano je, da se korporativno upravljanje v javnih zavodih uredi po načelih in na način, kot je urejeno v gospodarskih družbah, to je z nadzornim svetom (ki je tripartitno sestavljen), ki opravlja izključno kadrovsko in nadzorstveno funkcijo (ne pa poslovodske), in direktorjem, ki ima vse poslovodske pristojnosti.

Ključne besede: javni sektor, javni zavodi, javne agencije, javni skladi, slovenski državni holding, javne službe, korporativno upravljanje, osebe javnega prava

Title: Corporate Governance in Public Sector in the Republic of Slovenia

Abstract: Public sector in Slovenia has been, from the point of view of property rights, organization and governance, the same since in the year 1991, when the Law on public institutions passed in the Slovene Parliament, as one of the important reform laws. At that time, the property of ex self-management communities was "temporarily" nationalized (transferred to state and municipal ownership). Notwithstanding huge reforms in the private business sector, the public sector remains as it was when it was taken by the state (nationalized). A reform is needed in this field and the article shows the weak points of the existing approaches in corporate governance in the public sector and presents the standpoints and guidelines for a corporate governance reform in public sector.

Key words: Public Sector, Public Institutions, Public agencies, Public funds, Slovene sovereign holding, Public Services, Corporate Governance in Public Institutions, Entities Of Public Law

Uveljavitev zastavne pravice s prevzemom zavarovanja

Renato Vrenčur

Povzetek: Zakon o finančnih zavarovanjih dovoljuje (ki sledi Direktivi 2002/47/ES) imetnikom finančnih zavarovanj prilastitev (prevzem) predmeta finančnega zavarovanja, če je tako dogovorjeno s pogodbo o finančnem zavarovanju. Avtor se v tem prispevku ukvarja s pogoji za veljavnost dogovora o uveljavitvi finančnega zavarovanja s prevzemom predmeta (finančnega instrumenta) zavarovanja.

Ključne besede: Zakon o finančnih zavarovanjih, stvarno pravo, finančna zavarovanja, dogovor o finančnem zavarovanju, prilastitev predmeta finančnega zavarovanja, prevzem predmeta finančnega zavarovanja

Title: Enforcement of a Lien by Financial Collateral Appropriation

Abstract: Law on Financial Collateral permits (following the Directive 2002/47/EC) holders of financial collateral appropriation (acquisition) of the object of collateral, if so agreed by a contract of financial collateral. The author of this article deals with the conditions for the validity of an agreement on the enforcement of collateral with the acquisition of the object of financial collateral.

Key words: Financial Collateral Act, property law, financial collateral, collateral agreement, appropriation of the object of financial collateral, acquisition of the object of financial collateral

Sodno varstvo zoper odločitve Državne revizijske komisije

Rajko Pirnat

Povzetek: Slovenija je poleg Malte edina država v Evropski uniji, ki nima zagotovljenega polnega sodnega varstva zoper odločitve Državne revizijske komisije (DRK), torej takega, v katerem lahko sodišče še pred sklenitvijo pogodbe odpravi ali spremeni odločitev DRK. Še posebej z razširitvijo uporabe ZPVPJN na koncesijske pogodbe bo tako varstvo treba zagotoviti. Avtor kritično obravnava dosedanjo sodno prakso, ki je tako sodno varstvo zavrnila takó, da odločitvam DRK ni priznavala pravne narave posamičnega akta, s katerim se odloča o pravicah in pravnih koristih vlagateljev revizijskega zahtevka in opozarja na nekatere neskladnosti z direktivama o pravnem varstvu v javnem naročanju. V članku tudi predlaga ureditev takega pravnega varstva in obravnava nekatera vprašanja take ureditve. Poleg tega kritično obravnava institut ničnosti v okviru pravnega varstva v postopkih javnih naročil in ugotavlja, da je nelogičen in v marsičem ne ustreza zahtevam obeh direktiv. Zato predlaga uveljavitev instituta neveljavnosti oziroma razveljavitve pogodbe z odločitvijo revizijskega organa ter nekaj temeljnih elementov ureditve tega instituta.

Ključne besede: javna naročila, pravno varstvo v postopkih javnega naročanja, sodno varstvo, neveljavnost pogodb

Title: Judicial Control of Decisions of National Review Commission

Abstract: In addition to Malta, Slovenia is the only EU Member State which does not allow for judicial control of decisions of National Review Commission (NRC), in which the court could set aside or change the decision of NRC. Due to the inclusion of concession contracts in these review procedures, in particular, such judicial control will need to be ensured. The author critically discusses the court practice which denied such court redress by denying to the decisions of NRC the legal nature of individual legal acts on rights and obligations of natural or legal persons, and draws attention to certain incongruences with the directives on review procedures concerning the award of public contracts. In the article, the author proposes statutory regulation of such judicial control and discusses some questions if this regulation. In addition, he criticizes the institute of nullity in review procedures and finds it illogical and to some extent contrary to the directives. He proposes a new institute of ineffectiveness, or arrangement under which the contract is considered ineffective by the review body, and proposes certain main elements of regulation of such institute.

Key words: public contracts, review procedures in relation to the award of public contracts, judicial control, ineffectiveness of contracts

Naše pravo in pravo ljudstvo: kako braniti ustavno demokracijo pred populizmom

Matej Avbelj

Povzetek: Prispevek se osredotoča na vpliv populizma na slovenski ustavnopravni red in še posebej vprašanje, kako naj se slovenska ustavna demokracija spopade z izzivi, ki ji jih prinaša populizem. Razdeljen je na tri dele. Uvodni, teoretični del predstavi poglavitna koncepta: populizem in ustavno demokracijo. Sledi kratka analiza pojavov v slovenski pravni in politični praksi, ki bi jih lahko označili za populistične. Prispevek se sklene s sklopom normativnih predlogov za izboljšanje obstoječega stanja v luči zagotavljanja ciljev ustavne demokracije.

Ključne besede: ustavna demokracija, populizem, vladavina prava, pluralizem, morala, korupcija, politične stranke

Title: Our Law and the Right People: On How to Defend the Constitutional Democracy against Populism

Abstract: The article focuses on the impact of populism on the Slovenian constitutional order and, in particular, on how the latter can defend itself against populism. The argument consists of three parts. In the introduction the main concepts: populism and constitutional democracy are laid out. This is followed by a brief analysis of the populist practices in the Slovenian political and legal life. The article concludes by stipulating several normative proposals to strengthen the Slovenian constitutional democracy against the encroachments of populism.

Key words: Constitutional Democracy, Populism, Rule of Law, Pluralism, Morality, Corruption, Political Parties

VSEBINA

Aktualna vprašanja delovnega prava

Katarina Kresal Šoltes

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava delovnopravne vidike ureditve agencijskega dela (temporary agency work) ter napotitve delavcev v okviru svobode opravljanja storitev na enotnem trgu (posting of workers), s poudarkom na novostih iz slovenske zakonodaje in predloga revizije Direktive 96/71/ES o napotitvi delavcev na delo v okviru opravljanja storitev.

Ključne besede: EU, napotitev delavcev, čezmejno opravljanje storitev, agencija za zagotavljanje začasnega dela, načelo enakega obravnavanja, Direktiva 96/71/ES

Title: Temporary Agency Work and Posting of Workers

Abstract: The article deals with labour law aspects of the regulation of temporary agency work and posting of workers in the Internal Market, with particular emphasis on Slovenian legislation novelties and the proposal for the revision of the Directive 96/71/ES concerning the posting of workers in the framework of the provision of services.

Key words: EU, posting of workers, cross-border provision of services, temporary work agency, the principle of equal treatment, Directive 96/71/ES

Barbara Kresal

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava odpoved pogodbe o zaposlitvi s strani delodajalca. Predstavi zahteve, ki izhajajo iz mednarodne ureditve in prava EU (zlasti Konvencije MOD 158, Spremenjene Evropske socialne listine, Direktive EU 98/59). V nadaljevanju sledi izbor iz novejše sodne prakse slovenskega vrhovnega sodišča glede posameznih vprašanj odpovedi pogodbe o zaposlitvi, tako o utemeljenih razlogih za odpoved, prepovedi diskriminacije, odpovednem roku, posebnem varstvu določenih kategorij delavcev itd. V sklepu so strnjene glavne ugotovitve.

Ključne besede: delovna razmerja, odpoved pogodbe o zaposlitvi, utemeljen razlog, odpovedni rok, odpravnina

Title: How Much Protection in Case of a Dismissal in the Future

Abstract: The contribution deals with the termination of the employment contract at the initiative of the employer. It presents requirements in this field stemming from the international and the EU law (ILO Convention No. 158, Revised European Social Charter, EU Directive 98/59). After that, a selection of recent case-law of the Slovenian Supreme Court on dismissal is analysed, dealing with, for instance, a valid reason for dismissal, a prohibition of discrimination, a period of notice, a special protection against dismissal for certain categories of workers etc. In conclusion, the main findings are gathered.

Key words: labour relations, dismissal, valid reason, period of notice, severance pay

Luka Tičar

Povzetek: Avtor želi v prispevku opozoriti na delovnopravno problematiko nekaterih razvijajočih oblik dela, ki so rezultat bliskovitega razvoja informacijske tehnologije oz. digitalizacije. V tej luči avtor skuša opredeliti pojem crowdwork in nakazati pravne posledice, ki jih njegov pojav lahko povzroči v luči tradicionalnih konceptov delovnega prava. Ob tem sicer opozori, da digitalizacija sfere dela nima zgolj negativnih učinkov, so pa slednji običajno predmet različnih strokovnih ocen. Avtor opozori tudi na siceršnji vpliv digitalizacije na položaj delavcev.

Ključne besede: digitalizacija, informacijska tehnologija, množično delo, e-platforma, pravica do izklopa, poklicno delo, zasebno življenje

Title: Labour Law in the Era of Digitalisation

Abstract: The paper draws attention to the labour law issues arising from the certain newly emerging forms of work, resulting from the fast development of information technology and digitalisation. In this light, the author attempts to define the notion of crowdwork and point at the legal consequences thereof for the traditional concept of labour law. The paper also highlights the fact that digitalisation of work does not have only negative consequences, yet is frequently a subject of diverse professional estimations. The author also draws attention to the general impact of digitalisation on the position of workers.

Key words: digitalisation, information technology, crowdwork, e-platform, right to log off, profesional work, private life

Biserka Kogej Dmitrovič

Povzetek: V prispevku je predstavljena novejša sodna praksa po ZDR-1. Predstavljene so odločbe Vrhovnega sodišča in stališča v zvezi s spremenjenimi določbami ZDR-1 glede na ZDR ter tudi nova stališča, za katera ni podlaga spremenjena zakonodaja, temveč gre za odstopanje od dosedanje sodne prakse. Prav tako so predstavljene odločbe, v katerih so sprejeta stališča v zvezi z vročanjem odpovedi pogodbe o zaposlitvi, obliko in vsebino odpovedi pogodbe o zaposlitvi ter obveznostmi delodajalca pred odpovedjo, ki se nanašajo na pisno opozorilo, pisno seznanitev delavca z očitanim razlogom nesposobnosti oziroma kršitvami in pravico do zagovora. Prikazano je stališče sodne prakse, da delodajalec lahko odpravi kršitve, zaradi katerih delavec lahko izredno odpove pogodbo o zaposlitvi. Po ZDR-1 lahko delodajalec redno odpove pogodbo o zaposlitvi zaradi neuspešno opravljenega poskusnega dela, takoj ko ugotovi, da delavec ne ustreza zahtevam delovnega mesta, zagotoviti pa mu mora odpovedni rok; ureditev je drugačna kot v ZDR. Predstavljene so odločbe v sporih o obstoju delovnega razmerja, pri katerih se je spremenila sodna praksa, tako da v teh sporih ni več treba uveljavljati tudi ugotovitve nezakonitosti prenehanja pogodbe o zaposlitvi.

Ključne besede: vročanje po ZDR-1, vsebina odpovedi, pisno opozorilo pred odpovedjo, pisna seznanitev, zagovor, izredna odpoved delavca, poskusno delo, ugotovitev obstoja delovnega razmerja

Title: ZDR-1 in the Light of Newer Judicial Practice

Abstract: The article presents the new judicial practice according to Employment Relationship Act (Zakon o delovnih razmerjih - ZDR-1). Decisions of the supreme court and positions regarding the changed provisions of ZDR-1 in regards to ZDR are presented, as well as new positions, the foundation of which is not the changed legislation, but the deviation from current judicial practice. Decisions are also presented, wherein positions are adopted in regards to the serving of termination of the employment contract, form and content of the termination of contract, and the obligations of the employer before such termination, relating to a written warning of the employee with the apparent reason of incompetence, or violations and the right to defend. The position of judicial practice is shown, wherein the employer may remove the violations, due to which an employee may exceptionally terminate the employment contract. According to ZDR-1, the employer may regularly terminate an employment contract due to unsuccessful trial work, immediately after finding out, that the employee does not suit the demands of the work place, but must ensure a period of notice; the arrangement differs from ZDR. Decisions are presented in disputes regarding the existence of work relationship, whereby the judicial practice has changed, so that these disputes do not demand the identification of illegality of the employment contract termination any more.

Key words: serving according to ZDR-1, content of termination, written warning before termination, written informing, defence, exceptional termination of employee, trial work, identification of work relationship existence

Darja Senčur Peček

Povzetek: V prispevku je obravnavana vsebina in pomen delovnega prava EU, še posebej direktiv, ki se nanašajo na določena področja delovnih razmerij. Analizirane so možnosti neposrednega učinkovanja direktiv v razmerju do države kot delodajalca in v razmerju do zasebnega delodajalca, pa tudi pomen lojalne razlage direktiv. Avtorica obravnava tudi pomen sodb Sodišča EU, sprejetih v postopkih predhodnega odločanja za razlago prava EU in predstavi nekaj novejših sodb Sodišča, aktualnih za slovensko delovno pravo.

Ključne besede: delovno pravo EU, direktive, Sodišče EU, neposredni učinek direktiv, delavec, sprememba delodajalca, kolektivni odpusti, letni dopust

Title: The Impact of EU Law on Slovenian Labour Law

Abstract: This article discusses the content and impact of EU labour law, especially of directives relating to specific areas of labour relationships. It analyses the possibilities of direct effect of directives in relation to the state as an employer and in relation to private employers, as well as the importance of accurate interpretation of directives. The author also addresses the importance of judgements issued by the Court of Justice of the EU in preliminary ruling proceedings for the interpretation of EU law and presents some recent judgements of the Court that are relevant for current Slovenian labour law.

Key words: EU labour law, directives, Court of Justice of the EU, direct effect of directives, employee, transfer of undertaking, collective redundancies, annual leave

Posebni del kazenskega prava - aktualna vprašanja teorije in sodne prakse

Damjan Korošec

Povzetek: Avtor opozarja na sistemske neskladnosti in nekatere napake slovenskega spolnega kazenskega prava na področju spola storilca in žrtve, neposrednosti in viktimocentričnosti spolnih deliktov, storilčeve posesti orožja kot kvalifikatorne okoliščine, hujše posledice in celotnega sistema stopnjevanja nepravnosti interpersonalnega spolnega ravnanja.

Ključne besede: Slovenija, spolno kazensko pravo, posilstvo, spolno prisiljenje, spolni napad na otroka

Title: Sexual Criminal Law

Abstract: The author stresses some anomalies in the system and errors in the Slovenian sexual criminal law. He mainly points out several combinations of offender''s and victim''s sex, directness and victimocentricity of sexual acts in the criminal code, the offender''s possession of arms as an aggravated circumstance of a sexual offence, praeterintentional result in sexual crime and the whole system of levels of unlawfulness of interpersonal sexual actions.

Key words: Slovenia, sexual criminal law, rape, sexual duress, sexual attack on child

Katja Filipčič

Povzetek:Obravnavanje kaznivih dejanj zoper delovno razmerje odpira številna vprašanja: kaj je prepovedana posledica, kakšen učinek ima delodajalčeva objektivna nemožnost plačil obveznosti, kakšne značilnosti ima krivda, vprašanje delavčeve privolitve v zmanjšanje njegovih pravic, nerešena vprašanja odgovornosti za hujšo posledico. Državni tožilci in sodniki se zaradi velikega povečanja obsega zadev z njimi srečujejo vse pogosteje, kljub temu pa na nekatera vprašanja še ni zadovoljivih odgovorov.

Ključne besede: pravice delavcev, plačilo prispevkov, krivda, odgovornost za hujšo posledico

Title: Criminal Offences against Labour Relations and Social Security

Abstract: Dealing with criminal offences against labour relations raises numerous questions: what are prohibited consequences, the effect of objective impossibility of employer to pay prescribed obligations, the characteristics of criminal liability, the question of employee's consent to the reduction of his rights, unsolved problems with the liability for graver consequences. Prosecutors and judges are, due to a large increase in number of cases, confronted with these questions, and some of them do not yet have satisfactory answers.

Key words: labour rights, payment of the prescribed contributions, criminal liability, liability for graver consequences

Jože Kozina

Povzetek: Nedvomno se je strinjati s stališčem, da je pluralnost mnenj in pogledov v postmoderni družbi pomembna civilizacijska vrednota, vendar pa obstajajo tudi področja, kjer je njihova prisotnost lahko manj zaželena. Eno takih je področje kazenskega prava, ki se nanaša na pravne dobrine, ki naj bi jih ščitile inkriminacijske določbe kazenskega zakonika in v zvezi s katerimi bi moralo biti zakonodajalcu že pred vsakokratno inkriminacijo določenega človekovega ravnanja kristalno jasno, katero konkretno dobrino namerava država z njo sploh varovati. Če ta imperativ ni izpolnjen - in v primeru menedžerskega delikta to še posebej bije v oči - imamo stanje, kot ga pač imamo, in dejstvo, da se v njegovo zakonsko bit posega povprek in počez "na vsake kvatre", je samo eden od poraznih vidikov omenjene kazenskopravne dezorientiranosti.

Ključne besede: menedžerski delikt, kazenskopravno varovana dobrina, interes lastnikov podjetja, interes deležnikov podjetja

Title: Some Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Criminally Protected Good in Cases of Managerial Offence According to Article 240 of the KZ-1

Abstract: Undoubtedly it is to be agreed that plurality of opinions and views in the post-modern society represents an important civilizational value. There are, however, areas where its presence is less welcome. One of them also embodies the area of criminal law that applies to legal goods that are to be protected by the incriminating clauses of Criminal Code (Kazenski zakonik - KZ-1) and regarding which it would have to be crystal clear to the legislator what good is to be protected before each incrimination of certain behaviour. If this imperative is not met, and this is especially evident in cases of managerial offences, we face a situation as it is now and the fact that encroachment of its legal essence is done "across and crosswise every so often" is only one of the disastrous aspects of the disorientation in criminal law.

Key words: managerial offence, good protected by criminal law, interest of the owners of the company, interest of the stakeholders of the company

Uroš Čop

Povzetek: Namen prispevka je začeti diskusijo o ustaljenem načinu razlage izvršitvenih ravnanj, ki so določena v prvem odstavku 245. člena KZ-1. Iz izredno skope sodne prakse slovenskih sodišč in primerov, s katerimi se ukvarjam, ugotavljam, da odkrivanje in pregon storilcev tega kaznivega dejanja v Sloveniji temelji večinoma na tradicionalnih ravnanjih, ki predstavljajo zakonske znake pranja denarja, pri čemer modernih oblik skoraj ni mogoče zaznati. Določba prvega odstavka 245. člena KZ-1 je po mojem mnenju dovolj moderno in široko postavljena, da omogoča pregon in kaznovanje tudi modernih izvršitvenih oblik, ki so se pojavile z razvojem interneta, novih plačilnih sredstev (bitcoin, digitalne valute ipd.) in tudi računalniških igric. Omenjena določba omogoča oziroma nalaga vsakokratno ugotavljanje, ali ravnanje storilca ima ali bi lahko imelo za posledico zakritje ali poskus zakritja izvora "umazanega" denarja ali premoženja, tako da ni razloga, da se moderne oblike pranja denarja ne bi preganjale in storilci ne bi bili obsojeni.

Ključne besede: pranje denarja, 245. člen KZ-1, izvršitveno ravnanje, darknet, bitcoin, subjektivni element kaznivega dejanja, dolus coloratus, izvor denarja

Title: Criminal Offence of Money Laundering under the Article 245 of the KZ-1 - Modernisation of Executing Conducts and Determination of Subjective Element

Abstract: The purpose of the article is to begin a discussion on the conventional interpretation of criminal conduct set forth under the first paragraph of Article 245 of the Criminal Code (Kazenski zakonik - KZ-1). Judging from the extremely sparse case law of Slovene courts as well as my own professional experience, the detection and prosecution of money laundering offenders in Slovenia has mainly been based on "traditional" types of criminal conduct, which involves substantive components of money laundering, while their contemporary forms are scarcely present. In my own opinion, however, the provision under the first paragraph of Article 245 of KZ-1 was designed with a sufficient degree of modernity as well as broadness to allow for the prosecution and punishment of contemporary criminal conducts which have emerged in the era of internet, new payment methods (bitcoin, digital currencies and the like) and also computer games. Based on this provision it can and should be ascertained in each particular case whether the conduct of an offender has or could have led to concealment or an attempt to conceal the source of "dirty" money or property: there is therefore no reason why contemporary forms of money laundering should not be prosecuted or their offenders convicted.

Key words: money laundering, Article 245 of KZ-1, criminal conduct, darknet, bitcoin, subjective element of an offence, dolus coloratus, source of money

Korporativno upravljanje v javnem sektorju

Rado Bohinc

Povzetek: V prispevku je najprej predstavljena zakonska ureditev pravnih oseb javnega sektorja, nato korporativnega upravljanja v javnem sektorju primerjano z upravljanjem z državnimi naložbami v okviru SDH. Predstavljena je primerjava nekaterih vidikov korporativnega upravljanja (ustanoviteljske pristojnosti, pristojnosti organov, ureditev imenovanja in odpoklica ter odgovornosti) med naslednjimi pravnimi osebami javnega sektorja: Slovenski državni holding, Javna agencija, javni sklad, javni zavod. Predlagano je, da se korporativno upravljanje v javnih zavodih uredi po načelih in na način, kot je urejeno v gospodarskih družbah, to je z nadzornim svetom (ki je tripartitno sestavljen), ki opravlja izključno kadrovsko in nadzorstveno funkcijo (ne pa poslovodske), in direktorjem, ki ima vse poslovodske pristojnosti.

Ključne besede: javni sektor, javni zavodi, javne agencije, javni skladi, slovenski državni holding, javne službe, korporativno upravljanje, osebe javnega prava

Title: Corporate Governance in Public Sector in the Republic of Slovenia

Abstract: Public sector in Slovenia has been, from the point of view of property rights, organization and governance, the same since in the year 1991, when the Law on public institutions passed in the Slovene Parliament, as one of the important reform laws. At that time, the property of ex self-management communities was "temporarily" nationalized (transferred to state and municipal ownership). Notwithstanding huge reforms in the private business sector, the public sector remains as it was when it was taken by the state (nationalized). A reform is needed in this field and the article shows the weak points of the existing approaches in corporate governance in the public sector and presents the standpoints and guidelines for a corporate governance reform in public sector.

Key words: Public Sector, Public Institutions, Public agencies, Public funds, Slovene sovereign holding, Public Services, Corporate Governance in Public Institutions, Entities Of Public Law

Anja Strojin Štampar

Povzetek: Z Zakonom o slovenskem državnem holdingu je bil oblikovan centralni upravljavec kapitalskih naložb države (SDH) z namenom ločitve funkcije države kot lastnice kapitalskih naložb od njenih drugih funkcij ter z namenom preglednejšega in učinkovitejšega upravljanja kapitalskih naložb države. Z zakonom so bili postavljeni jasni cilji na področju upravljanja naložb: povečanje vrednosti naložb, zagotavljanje čim višjega donosa in uresničevanje drugih legitimnih strateških ciljev. Za uresničitev teh ciljev so bili sprejeti akti upravljanja in zakonsko opredeljene naloge SDH pri upravljanju naložb. SDH je neodvisen in samostojen pri upravljanju svojih nalog, pri čemer je enakopraven z drugimi subjekti na upoštevnem trgu. Kot aktiven in odgovoren lastnik mora dejavno uresničevati svoja upravljavska upravičenja, spremljati poslovanje družb in poročati državi o uresničevanju ciljev upravljanja. Eden ključnih mehanizmov za izboljšanje korporativnega upravljanja in povečanja uspešnosti družb so kompetentni in učinkoviti nadzorni sveti, zato je SDH vzpostavil pregleden in strokoven postopek presoje kandidatov ob sodelovanju neodvisne kadrovske komisije.

Ključne besede: SDH, kapitalske naložbe države, aktivno upravljanje, akti upravljanja, strategija, letni načrt upravljanja, kodeks korporativnega upravljanja, kadrovska komisija

Title: State Capital Asset Management by SDH, Relationship with the State, Directors Nomination Process and Implementation of Recommendations and Corporate Governance Codes

Abstract: In order to provide more transparent and efficient management of the state capital assets, the central state asset manager has been appointed by the Act on the Slovene Sovereign Holding (Slovenski državni holding - SDH). The Act established the separation between the state''s ownership function and other state functions and set clear objectives for the state asset management: increase of asset value, realization of higher returns and fulfilment of other legitimate strategic goals. With the purpose of achieving the so-defined objectives, the asset management acts have been adopted and the role of SDH has been clearly defined. SDH is an independent and autonomous asset manager. In the performance of its tasks SDH should not be awarded any privilege or advantage over other subjects on the market. As an active and accountable owner SDH must actively exercise its stakeholder''s rights, monitor the SOEs'' performance and duly report to the state on the implementation of the SOEs'' objectives. The key mechanism for the improvement of the SOEs'' corporate governance and performance are competent and efficient supervisory boards, therefore SDH has established a transparent and professional process of board candidate''s assessment through an independent accreditation committee.

Key words: SDH, state capital assets, active owner, asset management acts, strategy, annual asset management plan, corporate governance code, accreditation committee

Dušan Jovanovič, Borut Bratina

Povzetek: V prispevku avtorja predstavita osnovni razvoj in sedanjo opredelitev javnih podjetij ter njihovo umestitev v korporacijsko statusnopravno področje. V nadaljevanju prikažeta nekatere tuje primere organiziranja javnih podjetij v različnih lokalnih skupnostih, poleg tega pa podata tudi glavna izhodišča za organiziranje javnih podjetij v slovenskem prostoru z nekaterimi predlogi in rešitvami. Skupni imenovalec opisanih modelov je seveda učinkovito in transparentno korporativno upravljanje povezanih subjektov.

Ključne besede: javno podjetje, gospodarska družba, korporativno upravljanje, model upravljanja

Title: Governance Models of Public Undertakings under Municipality Ownership

Abstract: In this article the authors present the basic description of the development and the current definition of public undertakings as also the placement of them into the field of corporate law. Later on they show some foreign cases of organizing public undertakings in different local societies. The authors focus on some basic starting points how to organize public undertakings in Slovenian territory with certain suggestions and solutions. The common ground of all mentioned models is definitely in the efficient and transparent corporate governance of connected undertakings.

Key words: public undertaking, company, corporate governance, governance model

Peter Podgorelec

Povzetek: V 264. členu Zakona o gospodarskih družbah (ZGD-1) je urejena odgovornost zaradi škodljivega vpliva tretje osebe na družbo. Kot tretja oseba se šteje tudi kontrolni delničar oziroma družbenik. Po mnenju avtorja pa bi bilo treba uporabo pravil koncernskega prava razširiti tudi na primere, ko ima položaj obvladujočega imetnika deležev država ali lokalna skupnost.

Ključne besede: država, občina, odškodninska odgovornost, kontrolna kapitalska udeležba, škodljiv vpliv

Title: State or Municipality Liability as a Controlling Shareholder of the Public Undertakings and Companies

Abstract: The Companies Act (Zakon o gospodarskih družbah - ZGD-1) lays down the rules on damage liability arising from the detrimental influence of third parties (Article 264). The controlling shareholder may also be defined as a third party. In the opinion of the author, the rules of law relating to groups of companies (group law) must also be applied in cases where state or municipality becomes the controlling shareholder.

Key words: state, municipality, civil liability, controlling shareholding, detrimental influence

Bojan Tičar

Povzetek: Korporativno upravljanje v sodobnem pomenu je sestav nadzornih mehanizmov, prek katerih si tisti, ki zagotavljajo kapitalsko financiranje korporacij, zagotovijo povrnitev svojih naložb. Pri tem morajo paziti, da ne ogrozijo dolgoročnega razvoja in obstoja poslovnega sistema korporacije. Pravni temelj korporativnega upravljanja je praviloma izpeljan iz večinskega lastništva kapitala korporacije. To je pregledno, če imamo opravka z delniško družbo ali kakšno drugo kapitalsko družbo. Po naši hipotezi pa so korporacije tudi javni zavodi, ki praviloma nimajo kapitala. Čeprav javni zavodi nimajo osnovnega kapitala, ustanovitelj (država ali občina) večinoma ne odgovarja za obveznosti zavoda in tako tudi zapiše v sodni register ob registraciji. Javni zavod seveda vedno odgovarja z vsem svojim premoženjem, ustanovitelj pa upnikom zavoda ne odgovarja. V takšnem kontekstu je javni zavod sui generis nečlanska korporacija, ki je po obliki odgovornosti dejansko izenačena s kapitalsko družbo. Anomalija sistema je v tem, da za ustanovitev javnega zavoda ni predpisan minimalni kapital, ki bi v nekem določnem znesku varoval upnike. Iz tega sledijo tudi posebna razmerja korporativnega upravljanja. Korporativnopravno razmerje v javnem zavodu med državo/občino in javnim zavodom poteka v okviru pravice, po kateri javna ustanoviteljica (država/občina) praviloma neposredno imenuje večino članov sveta zavoda. Država/občina zaradi lastne nezmožnosti neposrednega upravljanja prenese pooblastilo za opravljanje te dejavnosti na svoje člane v svetu zavoda, ki v njenem imenu izvajajo to funkcijo. To velja tako za državne kot za občinske javne zavode. Avtor v razpravi povzame razmerja med ustanoviteljico (državo/občino) in organi javnega zavoda (svetom zavoda, direktorjem in strokovnim svetom) ter predlaga določene potrebne spremembe ureditve.

Ključne besede: javni zavod, javni sektor, korporativno upravljanje, korporacije, ustanove, premoženje zavoda

Title: Corporate Governance in the Public Institutions

Abstract: Corporate governance in the contemporary sense entails the structure of supervisory mechanisms by means of which those who provide financial resources for corporations ensure that they gain a return on their investment. At the same time, they must not jeopardise the long-term development and existence of the business system of the corporation at issue. The legal foundation of corporate governance is, as a general rule, derived from majority ownership of the capital in the corporation. This is transparent as regards public limited companies and some other types of share-limited companies. The hypothesis is that public institutions are also corporations. In general, public institutions do not have their own funds. Regardless of the fact that public institutions do not have equity (as accounting and legal category. Public institutions have basic resources needed for business which are not equity as capital category), the founder thereof (i.e. the state or a municipality) is, as a general rule, not accountable for the obligations of the institution, which is also registered in the court register upon the registration thereof. A public institution is, naturally, always accountable with all its assets, whereas the founder of the institution is not accountable to its creditors. In such a context, a public institution is a sui generis non-membership corporation that is in fact similar to company (or corporation in USA) in terms of the type of the accountability. The anomaly of the system lies in the fact that minimum capital, which would to a certain extent protect creditors, is not prescribed when establishing a public institution. Thus, particular relations of corporate governance also derive therefrom. A corporate legal relation within a public institution between the state or a municipality and the public institution itself is implemented within the scope of the right of a public founder of the public institution (i.e. the state or a municipality), in general, to directly appoint the majority of the board-members of the institution. Due to their inability to directly manage the institution, the state or municipality transfers the authority to manage such to its members on the board of the institution, who exercise this power on their behalf. This applies to both state-founded and municipality-founded public institutions. In the analysis, the author summarises the relationships between the founder of a public institution (i.e. the state or a municipality) and the public institution''s bodies (i.e. the board of the institution, the director, or the expert council thereof) and proposes certain necessary changes to the relevant legal order.

Key words: public institution, public sector, corporate governance, corporations, foundations, assets of the institution

Ureditev istospolnih partnerstev in družin v slovenskem in tujih pravnih redih

Barbara Rajgelj

Povzetek: Avtorica v prispevku analizira pravice, dolžnosti in pravne položaje partnerjev istega in različnega spola v slovenskem pravu. Analiza je zasnovana kot kronološki pogled na trideset let postopnega razvoja pravne ureditve istospolnih partnerstev pri nas, s poudarkom na poglobljeni analizi razlikovanja med istospolnimi in raznospolnimi partnerstvi, ki so bila uvedena z Zakonom o registraciji istospolne partnerske skupnosti. Od njegove uveljavitve leta 2005 so se razlike postopoma zmanjševale, večinoma pa bodo odpravljena z novim Zakonom o partnerski zvezi, ki že velja, uporabljati pa se začne februarja 2017. Izziv za prihodnost, po vsej verjetnosti za ustavnosodno presojo, ostajajo zlasti na področju razmerij do otrok, torej upravičenost do postopkov z biomedicinsko pomočjo ter skupna posvojitev, ki sta po Zakonu o partnerski zvezi za istospolne partnerje še naprej izključeni.

Ključne besede: partnersko pravo, družinsko pravo, partnerstvo, zakonska zveza, istospolno partnerstvo, spolna usmerjenost, LGBT, človekove pravice

Title: Comparison of Rights, Duties and Legal Positions of Partners of the Same and Different Sexes in the Republic of Slovenia

Abstract: In this article, the author analyses the rights, duties and legal positions of partners of the same and different sexes in the Slovenian law. The analysis is designed as a chronological review of 30 years'' gradual development of the legal management of same-sex partnerships in Slovenia with the emphasis on an in-depth analysis of differentiation between same-sex and different sex partnerships, introduced with the Same-Sex Partnership Registration Act. Since its introduction in 2005, the differences were gradually reduced, but will mostly be entirely removed with the new Partnership Act, which is already in force and comes into use in February 2017. The challenge for the future, most likely also for constitutional legal judgement, remains mostly in the field of relations towards children, that is, the justification of procedures with biomedical aid and joint adoption, which, according to the Partnerships Act, are still excluded for same sex partners.

Key words: partnership law, family law, partnership, marriage, same-sex partnership, sexual orientation, LGBT, human rights

Barbara Novak

Povzetek: Istospolni partnerji v Sloveniji ne morejo skupaj posvojiti otroka, lahko pa vsak od partnerjev posvoji otroka sam. Posvoji lahko tujega otroka ali pa otroka svojega partnerja. Možnosti, da bi istospolni partnerji postali starši na podlagi posvojitve ali domneve starševstva s pomočjo oploditve z biomedicinsko pomočjo ali nadomestnega materinstva, v Sloveniji ni. Navedena ureditev velja ne glede na obliko skupnosti, v kateri živita istospolna partnerja. ZPZ za različno obravnavo istospolnih in raznospolnih partnerjev ne ponudi razlogov, kar kliče po ponovni presoji sprejete ureditve.

Ključne besede: starši, istospolni partnerji, posvojitev, OBMP, skrbništvo, rejništvo

Title: The Perspective for Same-sex Partners to Become Parents in the Slovene Legal Order

Abstract: In Slovenia same-sex partners cannot adopt a child together. Each of the partners can adopt a child only by him- or herself. The child can be entirely foreign in relation to the individual partner or can be a child of one of the partners. The same-sex partners do not have the opportunity to become parents on the basis of adoption or parental presumption applied in the procedure of an assisted insemination or the surrogate motherhood. This regulation is used notwithstanding the form of life community of the same-sex partners. The discrepancy between the treatment of same-sex partners and partners of different sex in Partnership Relation Act (Zakon o partnerski zvezi - ZPZ) calls for legislative changes.

Key words: parents, same-sex partners, adoption, assisted insemination, guardianship, foster care

Sendi Murgel

Povzetek: Avtorica poda pregled celotnega postopka posvojitve, o kateri odloča center za socialno delo, razliko med dvostransko in enostransko posvojitvijo ter kako na vsebinsko odločitev vpliva največja korist otroka. Največjo korist otroka kot pravni standard je treba napolniti v vsakem primeru posebej in s posvojitvijo kot posebno obliko varstva otrok zagotoviti njihov zdrav celostni razvoj. S posvojitvijo najprej zagotavljamo korist otroka in šele nato potrebo posameznika po otroku.

Ključne besede: postopek posvojitve, dvostranske posvojitve, enostranske posvojitve, posvojitelji, največja otrokova korist

Title: Procedure of Adoption and the Best Interests of the Child

Abstract: The author gives an overview of the whole procedure of adoption that is decided by the center for social work, the difference between bilateral and unilateral adoption and how the best interests of the child affects the decision. The best interests of the child as a legal standard has to be filled in each case individual and with adoption as a special form of child care we have to ensure their healthy holistic development. With adoption we have to firstly guarantee the best interests of the child, and only after that, a need of individual for having a child.

Key words: adoption procedure, bilateral adoption, unilateral adoption, adoptive parents, the best interests of the child

Neža Kogovšek Šalamon

Povzetek: V prispevku je obravnavana sodna praksa, ki sta jo Evropsko sodišče za človekove pravice in Sodišče Evropske unije razvila na področju prava spolne usmerjenosti. Osredotoča se na tiste primere iz sodne prakse, ki se nanašajo na pravno priznavanje partnerstev, pravice, ki izhajajo iz partnerstva (ekonomske in socialne pravice, priseljevanje), ter na razmerja med starši in otroki (pravica do stikov, posvojitve, vpis starševstva v rojstne liste in priznavanje le-teh v primeru nadomestnega materinstva). Pokaže tudi na razvoj prakse in tiste točke, v katerih je Evropsko sodišče svojo prakso spremenilo, kar odraža sočasne spremembe in večjo sprejetost vprašanj, povezanih s spolno usmerjenostjo, v družbi. Prispevek vsebuje tudi nekaj terminoloških pojasnil, ki naj prispevajo k jezikovnemu razvoju pravne terminologije na obravnavanem področju.

Ključne besede: enako obravnavanje, diskriminacija, spolna usmerjenost, homoseksualnost, istospolni pari, geji in lezbijke, Evropsko sodišče za človekove pravice, Sodišče Evropske unije, razvijajoče se pravice, strateška litigacija

Title: The Rights of Gays, Lesbians and Their Children in the ECHR and CJEU Case Law

Abstract: The paper presents case law developed by the European Court of Human Rights and Court of Justice of the European Union in the field of sexual orientation law. It focuses on the cases related to legal recognition of same-sex partnerships, the rights deriving from same-sex partnership (economic and social rights, immigration) and the relations between parents and children (the right to contacts, adoption, recognition of parenthood in birth certificates and recognition of foreign birth certificates in cases of surrogacy). The paper points at those instances where the courts changed their case law reflecting the societal changes and increased acceptance of sexual orientation issues in communities. The paper offers terminological clarifications that should contribute to the development of legal terminology in this field.

Key words: equal treatment, discrimination, sexual orientation, homosexuality, same-sex couples, gays and lesbians, European Court of Human Rights, Court of Justice of the European Union, evolving rights, strategic litigation

(Kazenska) odgovornost bankirjev za slabe bančne kredite

Franjo Štiblar

Povzetek: Pri obravnavi odgovornosti bankirjev za slabe bančne kredite so odločilni objekt, tj. slab kredit (kredit z neustreznim zavarovanjem za primer nevračila), subjekti, ki so prispevali k njegovemu nastanku (zunanje okoliščine finančne krize, odločitev centralnih bank in vlad, pogodbenika), in posel, ki ga je pravno omogočil (normativni akt in konkretna kreditna pogodba). Pri iskanju krivca (inkriminaciji slabih bančnih kreditov) je treba, čeprav je težko, ločiti prispevek zunanjih okoliščin od okoliščin podelitve kredita, pri slednjih pa poslovno tveganje od kaznivega dejanja. Večja normativna transparentnost, zgledi tuje prakse in izobraževanje bodo izboljšali učinkovitost pravosodja tudi na tem področju.

Ključne besede: bančna luknja, slabi krediti, bančna skrivnost, poslovno tveganje

Title: (Criminal) Liability of Bankers for Bad Bank Loans

Abstract: Critical elements in analysing responsibility of bankers for bad bank loans are: the object (bank loan inadequately secured against non-repayment), contributing subjects (externalities, as global financial crises, decisions of central banks and governments, agents in contract), and the business act on which loan is approved and disbursed (normative act and specific conditions of credit agreement). Search for guilty person (incrimination of bad bank loan) is needed, but difficult, as is it necessary to delineate contribution of external conditions from the credit deal alone, and within the later, the business risk from criminal intent. Improvement in the efficiency of legal system in this field requires higher normative transparency, taking into account experience of other countries and intensive education of actors dealing with bad loans in legislature.

Key words: bank hole, bad loans, banking secrecy, business risk

Nastja Kvas

Povzetek: Slovenske banke so pri odobravanju kreditov kršile lastne interne predpise in tudi zakonske predpise. Odobravali so se krediti, čeprav je bilo znano, da bilančno stanje kreditojemalca in zavarovanje nista primerna, kreditna dokumentacija je bila pomanjkljiva, niso se upoštevala mnenja risk managerjev itd. Tudi v drugih državah po svetu se srečujejo s problemom odobravanja slabih kreditov. Ta članek želi poudariti bistvene pomanjkljivosti v slovenski zakonski ureditvi in v sklopu analize tujih pravnih redov predstaviti morebitne rešitve.

Ključne besede: analiza, zloraba položaja, zloraba zaupanja, doktrina namerne slepote, slabi krediti, eventualni naklep, bančna tajnost

Title: Comparative Legal Analysis of Criminal Liability of Bankers for Bad Loans

Abstract: Slovenian banks broke their own internal regulations as well as legal regulations when granting credits. Loans were being approved although it was known that borrower's balance sheet and insurance were not appropriate and the credit documentation was inadequate, risk managers' opinions were not taken into account, etc. Other countries in the world as well are facing problems with bad credit approvals. The purpose of this article is to emphasize critical weaknesses in Slovenian legal regulations and introduce possible solutions by analysing foreign legal orders.

Key words: analysis, abuse of power, breach of confidence, the doctrine of wilful blindness, NPLs, conditional intent, banking secrecy

Finančna zavarovanja

Nina Plavšak

Povzetek: Avtorica v prispevku razloži pravne posledice uveljavitve zastavne pravice. Utemelji, da s prodajo zaradi uveljavitve zastavne pravice dobroverni kupec postane imetnik finančnih instrumentov ali poslovnega deleža, čeprav je zastavni upnik neupravičeno uveljavil zastavno pravico. Če zastavni upnik neupravičeno ali nepravilno proda zastavljeno premoženje, zastavitelju odgovarja za škodo, ki mu jo s tem povzroči.

Ključne besede: uveljavitev zastavne pravice, pravne posledice neupravičene ali nepravilne uveljavitve zastavne pravice

Title: Enforcement of a Lien through Sale of Pledged Assets

Abstract: The author explains the legal consequences of the execution of the lien. She substantiates that bona fide purchaser becomes the holder of the financial instrument or shareholding, although the creditor unduly executed the lien. If lien creditor unduly or improperly sold the property subject to lien, he is liable for the damage caused to the holder of this property.

Key words: execution of lien, legal consequences of the execution of the lien unduly or improperly

Renato Vrenčur

Povzetek: Zakon o finančnih zavarovanjih dovoljuje (ki sledi Direktivi 2002/47/ES) imetnikom finančnih zavarovanj prilastitev (prevzem) predmeta finančnega zavarovanja, če je tako dogovorjeno s pogodbo o finančnem zavarovanju. Avtor se v tem prispevku ukvarja s pogoji za veljavnost dogovora o uveljavitvi finančnega zavarovanja s prevzemom predmeta (finančnega instrumenta) zavarovanja.

Ključne besede: Zakon o finančnih zavarovanjih, stvarno pravo, finančna zavarovanja, dogovor o finančnem zavarovanju, prilastitev predmeta finančnega zavarovanja, prevzem predmeta finančnega zavarovanja

Title: Enforcement of a Lien by Financial Collateral Appropriation

Abstract: Law on Financial Collateral permits (following the Directive 2002/47/EC) holders of financial collateral appropriation (acquisition) of the object of collateral, if so agreed by a contract of financial collateral. The author of this article deals with the conditions for the validity of an agreement on the enforcement of collateral with the acquisition of the object of financial collateral.

Key words: Financial Collateral Act, property law, financial collateral, collateral agreement, appropriation of the object of financial collateral, acquisition of the object of financial collateral

Miha Šlamberger

Povzetek: Evropska komisija je z Direktivo 2002/47/ES sledila cilju odstranitve omejitev za učinkovito uporabo dogovorov o finančnih zavarovanjih, tako da je omejila formalnosti pri ustanavljanju in izvrševanju finančnih zavarovanj, podprla zaščito dogovorov o finančnih zavarovanjih pred posledicami pravil insolvenčnih postopkov, dovolila uporabo finančnega zavarovanja, kot da bi bil prejemnik njihov lastnik, in priznala veljavo strukturi popolnega prenosa pravice v dogovoru o finančnem zavarovanju in dogovoru o izravnavi. Kot finančna zavarovanja se tako lahko uporabijo finančni instrumenti, gotovina ali bančno posojilo, pogodbe oziroma dogovori o finančnem zavarovanju pa se lahko sklepajo le med določenimi pravnimi osebami z dopustnimi posebnimi dogovori. Posebna pravila se nanašajo na spremembe v obličnostnih zahtevah ob sklepanju dogovora o finančnem zavarovanju (odprava administrativnih ovir), možnostih posebnih dogovorov o uporabi predmeta zavarovanja, prilastitvi in neto izravnavi v primeru nastopa pogoja izvršitve. V prispevku na primerjalnopravni način predstavljam ureditev finančnih zavarovanj v Avstriji, Nemčiji in Veliki Britaniji.

Ključne besede: finančna zavarovanja, prilastitev, pravica rabe, izvensodna unovčitev zavarovanja

Title: Financial Collateral Agreements in Comparable Legal Regulations

Abstract: The European Commission aimed, with Directive 2002/47/EC, to eliminate the restrictions for an efficient use of financial collateral arrangements by abolishing formal requirements for the creation and execution of financial collateral, by supporting the protection of financial collateral arrangements against statutory insolvency regulation, by introducing the right of use of given collateral and admitting the title transfer and close-out netting provisions. Financial instruments, cash and credit claims can be used as financial collateral and collateral agreements may be concluded only between designated parties being legal entities only with allowed special provisions. Special provisions are handling formal requirements for concluding financial collateral agreements (limitation of administrative burdens), the possibility of special agreements on the right of use, appropriation and close-out netting in the case of the occurrence of the enforcement event. The article deals with the legal framework for financial collateral arrangements in Austria, Germany and Great Britain.

Key words: financial collateral, appropriation, right of use, out-of-court enforcement

Izbrana vprašanja begunske in migrantske krize

Saša Zagorc

Povzetek: Instituta preselitve in premestitve sta bila doslej obrobnega pomena za delovanje Evropske unije, kar je prispevalo k neustreznemu odzivu na množičen pritok beguncev lansko leto. Nenadnost in velikost begunskega vala je povzročila raznovrstne reakcije v Evropi, ki so odsevale nasprotujoče si dojemanje problema in njegovih rešitev. Prepada ni mogoče pojasniti samo z argumentom drugačnega ekonomskega, demografskega in geografskega položaja, kot tudi ne z geostrateško umestitvijo držav znotraj Evrope in v odnosu do tretjih držav. Priča smo najglobljim razlikam glede tega, kako obravnavamo tujca, in izgradnje evropske in nacionalne identitete. Navkljub ostremu nasprotovanju nekaterih držav članic Evropske unije, se bo evropeizacija migracijskih vprašanj nadaljevala v smeri bolj koordiniranega odločanja na naddržavnem nivoju z močnim vplivom držav članic nanj.

Ključne besede: preselitev, premestitev, mednarodna zaščita, Evropska unija, Ženevska konvencija, migracijska politika

Title: Resettlement and Relocation of Refugees: a Hot Potato for Europe?

Abstract: Resettlement and relocation have been marginal issues in the European Union until recently, a fact that amounted to an unfit response to the mass refugee influx of the last year. Suddenness and intensity of the wave resulted in a plethora of reactions around Europe, reflecting a conflicting perception of the problem and its solutions. The schism exceeds the argument of different economic, demographic or geographic situation of member states as well as geostrategic constellation of the states within and against third countries. What we may witness are the most profound differences in treatment of a foreigner and in maintenance of national and European identity. Nevertheless and despite the backlash of some member states, Europeanisation of migration issues will continue in the direction of a more coordinated decision-making at the supranational level with a strong influence of member states upon it.

Key words: resettlement, relocation, international protection, European Union, Geneva Convention, migration policy

Neža Kogovšek Šalamon

Povzetek: Evropska unija se v zadnjih desetletjih sooča s povečanim številom prihodov ljudi, ki si želijo boljše življenje ali bežijo pred preganjanjem, kršenjem človekovih pravic ali okoljskimi katastrofami. Države članice so na povečane prihode odgovorile predvsem s kaznovalnimi ukrepi zoper tujce, k čemur je pomembno prispeval postopek harmonizacije predpisov na področju migracij in azila. V Evropski uniji je vsaj 17 držav članic kriminaliziralo nezakonit prehod državne meje ali nezakonito prebivanje in za ta dejanja predpisalo denarne ali zaporne kazni, preostale države članice pa te prestopke obravnavajo kot prekrške ali kazensko preganjajo le ponavljajoča se dejanja. Ob deklaratornem poudarjanju zavez človekovim pravicam tako lahko opazujemo vse močnejši pojav prepletanja nadzora nad kriminaliteto in nadzora nad migracijami, torej kriminalizacije migracij oziroma s krajšim izrazom krimigracij.

Ključne besede: priseljevanje, migracije, azil, mednarodna zaščita, tujci, krimigracije, nadzor, stanje izjeme, izredne razmere, omejitev gibanja

Title: Common European Asylum System Development Perspectives: Between Human Rights and Surveillance

Abstract: In the recent years the European Union has been faced with increased numbers of arrivals of people who strive for a better life or flee from persecution, human rights violations or environmental disasters. The responses of the member states to these developments are predominantly based on penalising measures directed against aliens, which was importantly driven by the harmonisation of the EU law in the field of migration and asylum. In the European Union at least 17 member states criminalised unlawful border crossing or unlawful presence and prescribed fines or imprisonment for such crimes. The rest of the member states treat such offences as misdemeanours or criminalise only continuous violation of the law. While human rights are still considered to be a value on the declaratory level, what we can observe in fact is the increasingly intensive merging of crime control and migration control, i.e. criminalisation of migration - crimmigration.

Key words: immigration, asylum, international protection, aliens, crimmigration, control, state of exception, state of emergency, limitation of movement, detention

Odprta vprašanja javnega naročanja

Rajko Pirnat

Povzetek: Slovenija je poleg Malte edina država v Evropski uniji, ki nima zagotovljenega polnega sodnega varstva zoper odločitve Državne revizijske komisije (DRK), torej takega, v katerem lahko sodišče še pred sklenitvijo pogodbe odpravi ali spremeni odločitev DRK. Še posebej z razširitvijo uporabe ZPVPJN na koncesijske pogodbe bo tako varstvo treba zagotoviti. Avtor kritično obravnava dosedanjo sodno prakso, ki je tako sodno varstvo zavrnila takó, da odločitvam DRK ni priznavala pravne narave posamičnega akta, s katerim se odloča o pravicah in pravnih koristih vlagateljev revizijskega zahtevka in opozarja na nekatere neskladnosti z direktivama o pravnem varstvu v javnem naročanju. V članku tudi predlaga ureditev takega pravnega varstva in obravnava nekatera vprašanja take ureditve. Poleg tega kritično obravnava institut ničnosti v okviru pravnega varstva v postopkih javnih naročil in ugotavlja, da je nelogičen in v marsičem ne ustreza zahtevam obeh direktiv. Zato predlaga uveljavitev instituta neveljavnosti oziroma razveljavitve pogodbe z odločitvijo revizijskega organa ter nekaj temeljnih elementov ureditve tega instituta.

Ključne besede: javna naročila, pravno varstvo v postopkih javnega naročanja, sodno varstvo, neveljavnost pogodb

Title: Judicial Control of Decisions of National Review Commission

Abstract: In addition to Malta, Slovenia is the only EU Member State which does not allow for judicial control of decisions of National Review Commission (NRC), in which the court could set aside or change the decision of NRC. Due to the inclusion of concession contracts in these review procedures, in particular, such judicial control will need to be ensured. The author critically discusses the court practice which denied such court redress by denying to the decisions of NRC the legal nature of individual legal acts on rights and obligations of natural or legal persons, and draws attention to certain incongruences with the directives on review procedures concerning the award of public contracts. In the article, the author proposes statutory regulation of such judicial control and discusses some questions if this regulation. In addition, he criticizes the institute of nullity in review procedures and finds it illogical and to some extent contrary to the directives. He proposes a new institute of ineffectiveness, or arrangement under which the contract is considered ineffective by the review body, and proposes certain main elements of regulation of such institute.

Key words: public contracts, review procedures in relation to the award of public contracts, judicial control, ineffectiveness of contracts

Tanja Bratina

Povzetek: V prispevku je obravnavana dostopnost pravnega varstva v postopkih javnega naročanja, in sicer predvsem z vidika obveznih sestavin zahtevka za revizijo, višine takse, omejitev pravnega varstva glede določenih kršitev in aktivne legitimacije. Prispevek prikazuje, kje lahko nastopijo največje ovire dostopnosti pravnega varstva, pri čemer je obravnavano tudi tolmačenje Državne revizijske komisije v zvezi s posameznimi vprašanji, ki lahko bistveno vplivajo na dostopnost pravnega varstva.

Ključne besede: dostopnost pravnega varstva, taksa, aktivna legitimacija, predhodno opozorilo na kršitev

Title: Access to Legal Protection before the National Review Commission

Abstract: The article presents the accessibility of the legal protection/remedies in public procurement procedures, particularly in the light of the mandatory components of the request for audit, the amount of the fees, the limitation of legal protection in relation to certain violations and legal standing. The article presents where the biggest obstacles to "access to justice" can arise, where also the interpretation of the National Review Commission for Reviewing Public Procurement Award Procedures is illustrated relating to specific issues that may have a significant impact on "access to justice".

Key words: accessibility of legal protection, fees, legal standing, prior warning of an infringement

Vesna Kranjc

Povzetek: Pogodba o javnem naročilu je lahko spremenjena le, če so izpolnjeni pogoji iz pravil o javnem naročanju. Prispevek obravnava dovoljene pogoje za spremembo. Obenem opozarja, da izpolnitev pogojev iz ZJN-3 naročniku ne omogoča, da doseže spremembo ali prenehanje pogodbe brez soglasja nasprotne stranke.

Ključne besede: javno naročilo, sprememba pogodbe, spremembe v pogodbi o javnem naročilu

Title: Limited Application of the Rules of Code of Obligations in Public Procurement Contracts

Abstract: Public procurement contract may be modified only in accordance with the rules on public procurement. The article elaborates on the criteria to be satisfied to change the public procurement contract. The article points out that fulfillment of the conditions set out in ZJN-3 does not mean that contracting authority may terminate or change the contract without the consent of another contract party.

Key words: public procurement, modified contract, modification of public procurement contract

Borut Smrdel

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava problematiko vpogledov v dokumentacijo iz postopkov oddaje javnih naročil, pri čemer se osredotoča predvsem na varovanje poslovnih skrivnosti. V njem je predstavljena ureditev tega področja v veljavnih predpisih, praksa Državne revizijske komisije za revizijo postopkov oddaje javnih naročil, nekoliko podrobneje pa tudi za problematiko relevantna sodba Sodišča EU v zadevi Varec. Avtor v prispevku opozarja na izrazito neskladje med zahtevo po varovanju poslovnih skrivnosti v postopkih oddaje javnih naročil na eni strani ter odprtim dostopom do vseh informacij po zaključku teh postopkov na drugi strani. V zvezi z navedenim izraža nujnost enotnega pristopa k obravnavanju in varovanju informacij, ki izvirajo iz postopkov oddaje javnih naročil.

Ključne besede: vpogled, dokumentacija, javno naročilo, javne informacije, poslovna skrivnost, ZJN, ZPVPJN, ZDIJZ

Title: Access to Information

Abstract: The paper deals with the problem of access to information, originating from public procurement procedures, focusing mainly on the protection of business secrets. It presents the legal framework regulating this area, the jurisprudence of the National Review Commission for Reviewing Public Procurement Procedures, as well as the judgment of the European Court of Justice in Case Varec, also relevant to the matter. The paper points to a disparity between the requirement of protection of business secrets in procurement procedures on one hand and open access to all the information after the completion of these procedures on the other. In this connection, it expresses the need for a unified approach to the treatment and protection of information originating from public procurement procedures.

Key words: access to information, documentation, public procurement, public information, business secret, PPA, LPPPPA, PIAA

Uroš Škufca

Povzetek: Zakon o javnem naročanju (ZJN-3) na novo ureja možnosti dopolnjevanja ponudb v fazi njihovega ocenjevanja. Omejitve odprave napak v ponudbah so tako primarno vezane na ponudbeno ceno, elemente, ki vplivajo na ocenjevanje na podlagi meril, ter na predmet ponudbe. Predvsem v delu, ki se nanaša na sposobnost ponudnika, pa je dopolnjevanje dopustno, če je mogoče posamezna dejstva objektivno preveriti za nazaj. Pri tem je naročnikom, upoštevaje načelo enakosti, dana diskrecijska pravica odločanja o dopustitvi dopolnjevanja ponudb, kar lahko pripelje do zlorab tega instituta.

Ključne besede: javna naročila, ponudba, dopolnjevanje ponudbe, pojasnitev ponudbe, zloraba, načeli enake obravnave in transparentnosti

Title: Possible Abuses of the Tender Supplementation Process

Abstract: The new Public Procurement Act (ZJN-3) has implemented new mechanisms regarding tender supplementation. Tender supplementation is limited to elements concerning tender price, selection criteria and the subject of the tender. The elements of qualification of a tenderer can be subject to supplementation, only if the existence of a certain fact can be objectively verified retroactively. The contracting authorities have, provided that such requests are made in full compliance with the principle of equal treatment, discretion right regarding allowing such supplementations, which can thus lead to abuse of the tender supplementation process.

Key words: public procurement, tender, bid, tender supplement, tender clarificarion, misuse, principles of equal treatment and transparency

Odvzem premoženja - med pravom in voljo večine

Matej Avbelj

Povzetek: Prispevek se osredotoča na vpliv populizma na slovenski ustavnopravni red in še posebej vprašanje, kako naj se slovenska ustavna demokracija spopade z izzivi, ki ji jih prinaša populizem. Razdeljen je na tri dele. Uvodni, teoretični del predstavi poglavitna koncepta: populizem in ustavno demokracijo. Sledi kratka analiza pojavov v slovenski pravni in politični praksi, ki bi jih lahko označili za populistične. Prispevek se sklene s sklopom normativnih predlogov za izboljšanje obstoječega stanja v luči zagotavljanja ciljev ustavne demokracije.

Ključne besede: ustavna demokracija, populizem, vladavina prava, pluralizem, morala, korupcija, politične stranke

Title: Our Law and the Right People: On How to Defend the Constitutional Democracy against Populism

Abstract: The article focuses on the impact of populism on the Slovenian constitutional order and, in particular, on how the latter can defend itself against populism. The argument consists of three parts. In the introduction the main concepts: populism and constitutional democracy are laid out. This is followed by a brief analysis of the populist practices in the Slovenian political and legal life. The article concludes by stipulating several normative proposals to strengthen the Slovenian constitutional democracy against the encroachments of populism.

Key words: Constitutional Democracy, Populism, Rule of Law, Pluralism, Morality, Corruption, Political Parties

Ali Žerdin

Povzetek: V nereflektiranih razpravah tisku pogosto pripisujejo status četrte veje oblasti. Ta oznaka je ponesrečena metafora, ki povzroča globoke nesporazume. Zgrešena je tako z ustavnopravnega kot politično-filozofskega stališča ter tudi z vidika zgodovinske analize. Tisk sicer je eden od pomembnih stebrov družbene moči, a ta steber se seseda sam vase.

Ključne besede: tisk, mediji, veje oblasti

Title: Misunderstandings with the Fourth Branch of Government

Abstract: In non-reflected discussions the press is often labelled as "fourth branch of government". The label is unfortunate metaphor that causes deep misunderstandings. Label is wrong from the constitutional and legal perspective, from the perspective of political philosophy and also from the perspective of historical analysis. Print in is an important pillars of social power, but this pillar collapses into itself.

Key words: press, media, branches of government

Jernej Podlipnik

Povzetek: Članek obravnava pravno naravo denarne obveznosti po 68.a členu slovenskega Zakona o davčnem postopku. Čeprav je ta poimenovana kot posebni davek na posameznikov neprijavljeni dohodek, avtor trdi, da je ni mogoče, vsaj ne v celoti, opredeliti kot davek, temveč kot posebno administrativno (upravno) sankcijo, saj so posamezniki obremenjeni bolj, kot bi bili, če bi se jim odmeril splošni davek na dohodek. Čeprav so administrativne (upravne) sankcije eno od sredstev za boj proti davčnemu utajevanju, pa je ustavnost obravnavane ureditve dvomljiva, in sicer tako z materialnopravnega kot s procesnopravnega vidika.

Ključne besede: davek, nenapovedani dohodek, dohodek neznanega izvora, sankcija, administrativna (upravna) sankcija, zastaranje, davčna stopnja

Title: Legal Nature of the Obligation under Article 68.a of Tax Procedure Act

Abstract: The article deals with the legal nature of the monetary obligation according to Article 68.a of the Slovenian Tax Procedure Act. Although it is named special tax on individuals'' unreported income the author argues that it cannot be, at least not as a whole, classified as tax, but rather as a special administrative sanction, because individuals are burdened more than they would be if regular income taxes were levied on them. Despite administrative sanctions are one of means to tackle tax frauds, the constitutionality of the legislation in question is doubtful from the substantive and procedural point of view.

Key words: tax, undeclared income, unknown source of income, sanction, administrative sanction, statute of limitations, tax rate

Nika Hudej, Iztok Ščernjavič

Povzetek: Avtorja v prispevku ugotavljata, da je primarni cilj Zakona o odvzemu premoženja nezakonitega izvora (ZOPNI) odvzeti premoženje, za katero se sumi, da je bilo pridobljeno s kaznivimi dejanji, kar vzpostavlja dvom o nujnosti sprejema tega zakona. V nadaljevanju opozarjata na ustavno spornost opredelitve pogojev za odreditev postopka finančne preiskave z vidika načel sorazmernosti, zakonitosti in enakosti. Zaključujeta, da je zakonodajalec s sprejetjem ZOPNI v imenu boja zoper organizirani kriminal preveč žrtvoval svobodo posameznikov in se tako pridružil trendu razgradnje človekovih pravic, do česar prihaja (vsaj na deklarativni ravni) v imenu zagotavljanja večje varnosti.

Ključne besede: odvzem premoženja nezakonitega izvora, nujnost sprejema ZOPNI, pogoji za finančno preiskavo po ZOPNI, načelo sorazmernosti, načelo zakonitosti, načelo enakosti, ustavna skladnost zakona

Title: What Did the Legislature Aim to Achieve and What Did it Actually Achieve: Discussion on the Constitutional Conformity of the Conditions for the Financial Investigation under the Confiscation of Proceeds of Crime Act

Abstract: The authors demonstrate that the primary objective of the Confiscation of Proceeds of Crime Act (ZOPNI) is in fact the forfeiture of assets that were allegedly obtained by criminal activity. This raises the question whether its adoption was necessary to achieve such an aim. Further, the authors point out the constitutional controversy in defining the conditions for financial investigation in the light of the principles of proportionality, legality and equality. They conclude that, by adopting ZOPNI in order to fight organized crime, the legislator has disproportionately sacrificed the freedom of individuals and has therefore joined the general trend towards downgrading human rights (at least in a declarative manner) in the name of protecting national security.

Key words: forfeiture of assets of illicit origin, necessity of the Confiscation of Proceeds of Crime Act, the conditions for financial investigation, principle of proportionality, principle of legality, principle of equality, constitutional review

Miha Šošić

Povzetek: Avtor se v prispevku ukvarja z vprašanjem učinkovitosti odvzema premoženjske koristi v kazenskem postopku. Učinkovitost se pri tem ne obravnava v statističnem, temveč v specifično pravnem pomenu. Na podlagi kratke analize veljavne slovenske ureditve odvzema premoženjske koristi v kazenskem postopku poskuša ugotoviti, ali je institut odvzema premoženjske koristi učinkovit tako z vidika funkcije, ki jo mora opraviti (restitucija premoženjskega stanja), kot z vidika varstva človekovih pravic in temeljnih načel pravne države.

Ključne besede: kazenski postopek, odvzem premoženjske koristi, človekove pravice, domneva nedolžnosti

Title: Is Asset Forfeiture in Criminal Proceedings Effective

Abstract: The author discusses the effectiveness of asset forfeiture in criminal proceedings. The effectiveness of asset forfeiture is not understood in a statistical sense, but rather in a specific legal sense. The author aims to examine the effectiveness of asset forfeiture by analysing the relevant provisions of Slovenian laws. The standard for examining the effectiveness of asset forfeiture is the specific restitutionary function of asset forfeiture as well as the protection of human rights and respect for the rule of law.

Key words: criminal proceeding, asset forfeiture, human rights, presumption of innocence

Nova prostorska in gradbena zakonodaja

Luka Ivanič

Povzetek: Prispevek predstavlja trenutno stanje normativnega okvira na področju urejanja prostora, prostorskega načrtovanja in graditve objektov. Popisuje temeljne problemske sklope, ki jih je na tem področju ob začetku projekta zakonske prenove identificiralo Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor ter potrdila Vlada RS, ter navaja in kratko opisuje ključne spremembe, kot so predvidene v trenutni fazi priprave zakonov. Namen reforme je nadomestiti in poenotiti sedanjo zakonsko ureditev tega področja, pri tem pa ne smemo prezreti, da so mnoge težave na tem področju bolj kot s samimi krovnimi predpisi povezane z načinom implementacije in s številnimi partikularnimi rešitvami področne zakonodaje.

Ključne besede: prostorsko načrtovanje, gradbeno dovoljenje, okoljska presoja, integracija, vse na enem mestu, zemljiška politika, reforma

Title: Fundamental Starting Points, Goals and Principles of the New Spatial Planning and Construction Legislation

Abstract: This article provides a short overview of the current state of legislative framework in the field of spatial planning and construction in Republic of Slovenia. It outlines major bottlenecks and shortcomings of the system as identified by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning and confirmed by the government. A brief description of key changes is given, as envisioned in the current proposal of legislative drafts. It should not be overlooked that not all problems are of legal/legislative nature, but also stem from the way implementation is carried out.

Key words: spatial planning, building permit, environmental assessment, integration, one-stop-shop, urban management, reform

Leon Kobetič

Povzetek: Zemljiška politika je nabor upravnih in finančnih instrumentov, namenjenih izvajanju nastajajočih in veljavnih prostorskih aktov in drugih dokumentov prostorskega razvoja ter učinkovitemu gospodarjenju s prostorom, predvsem z zagotavljanjem zadostnega fonda dostopnih stavbnih zemljišč in podporne gospodarske javne infrastrukture. V prispevku je obravnavana nepopolnost prostorskega načrtovanja ter ključne vsebinske podlage za izvajane zemljiške politike, kot je opredelitev območij zazidanih in nezazidanih stavbnih zemljišč z opredelitvijo razvojne stopnje ter območij prenove. Kot ključen organizacijski ukrep za vodenje zemljiške politike je obravnavana posebna oblika občinske javne službe - zemljiška služba. Izpostavljeno je komunalno opremljanje stavbnih zemljišč, obravnavani pa so tudi naslednji finančni instrumenti zemljiške politike: komunalni prispevek, izravnalni prispevek iz prirastkarnine, prispevek za prostorsko načrtovanje in davek na nepremičnine.

Ključne besede: zemljiška politika, prostorsko načrtovanje, stavbno zemljišče, razvojna stopnja stavbnega zemljišča, območje prenove, komunalni prispevek, izravnalni prispevek, prirastkarnina, nadomestilo za uporabo stavbnega zemljišča, davek na nepremičnine

Title: Land Policy Instruments and Measures on Building Land

Abstract: Land policy is a set of administrative and financial instruments for implementation and effective management of spatial plans and other documents of spatial development, in particular by ensuring a sufficient quantity of available building land improved with public infrastructure. The paper deals with incompleteness of spatial planning and key data basis for the implementation of land policy. It defines problems about the definition of building land, data and classification, green and brown field areas and building land development index. As a key organizational measure of land policy a new land service institution is proposed. The paper also address the infrastructure utilization and covers the following financial instruments of land policy: infrastructure tax, tax for land use change, tax for spatial planning and property tax.

Key words: land policy, spatial planning, building land, building land development index, green field area, brown field area, infrastructure improvement fee, tax for land use change, property tax

Aleš Mlakar

Povzetek: Stroka z veliko zadržanosti, a tudi pričakovanja in pripravljenosti tvorno sodelovati spremlja nastajanje novega Zakona o urejanju prostora. Temeljni očitek dosedanjemu spreminjanju prostorske zakonodaje je, da ni bila dovolj upoštevana teoretska/strokovna podstat urejanja prostora. Namen prispevka je ovreči nekaj mitov, povezanih s pripravo prostorske zakonodaje, na katere se običajno opira zakonodajalec, ter opozoriti na ključna izhodišča, namen in vsebine procesa urejanja prostora, ki bi jih morala upoštevati/omogočati tudi nova prostorska zakonodaja.

Ključne besede: urejanje prostora, prostorsko načrtovanje, varstvo okolja, zakonodaja, usklajevanje interesov, načrtovalna analiza, regulacija

Title: The Key Emphasis of the Process of Spatial Planning

Abstract: Profession with great reluctance, but also the expectations and willingness to cooperate actively monitors the formation of the new Spatial Management Act. The basic criticism of hitherto amends of spatial planning legislation is that has not been sufficiently taken into account theoretical/professional foundations of spatial planning. The purpose of this paper is to refute some of the myths associated with preparing of spatial legislation and to draw attention to key positions, the purpose and content of the process of spatial planning, which should be considered/enabled within the new spatial planning legislation.

Key words: spatial management, spatial planning, environmental protection, legislation, interests reconciliation, planning analysis, regulation

Barbara Škraba Flis

Povzetek: Inženirska zbornica Slovenije je pravna oseba javnega prava, v katero so združeni pooblaščeni inženirji, ki delujejo na področju graditve objektov, kot so projektanti, nadzorniki, vodje del, revidenti in geodeti. Razlogi za njeno ustanovitev, njeni cilji in naloge so določeni v Zakonu o graditvi objektov. Po eni strani ji to omogoča nove možnosti delovanja, po drugi strani pa ji zapira vrata. Vsaj tako nekatere naloge zbornice vidijo državna in lokalna uprava in njuni organi. Kje so meje delovanja zbornice, do kod lahko seže njena strokovnost in kakšna naj bo njena vloga v prihodnje? Katere naloge potrebujejo pravno podlago v novem zakonu, ki bo urejal delovanje inženirske zbornice in ga pripravlja Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor, in katere ne?

Ključne besede: Inženirska zbornica Slovenije, cilji in naloge Inženirske zbornice Slovenije, pooblaščeni inženirji

Title: Role of Professional Chamber in the Field of Building Construction and Construction Engineering

Abstract: The Slovenian Chamber of Engineers is a legal entity of public law, which unites authorised engineers, active in the field of building construction, such as planners, supervisors, managers of work at building site, auditors and land surveyors. The reasons for its founding, its goals and tasks are defined in the Building Construction Act. On one hand, this provides it with new possibilities of operation while, on the other, it closes the door for it. At least, this is how some of the tasks are seen by the national and local administration and their bodies. Where are the limits of the Chamber''s operation, how far can its professionalism reach, and what will be its role in the future? Which tasks need a legal foundation in the new law, which manages the operation of the Chamber of Engineers and is being prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, and which do not?

Key words: Slovenian Chamber of Engineers, goals and tasks of the Slovenian Chamber of Engineers, authorised engineers

Jelka Hudoklin

Povzetek: Prostorski akti so splošni pravni akti, s katerimi se načrtuje prostorski razvoj na državni in občinski ravni. Pripravljajo se v postopkih prostorskega načrtovanja, ki je v javnem interesu, njegova temeljna naloga pa je usklajevanje zelo različnih interesov. Priprava večine prostorskih aktov je zapletena in dolgotrajna, kar je deloma posledica določil prostorske in resorne zakonodaje, deloma pa pomanjkljivega znanja in neustreznega delovanja številnih deležnikov, ki sodelujejo v postopkih. Težave pri uporabi prostorskih aktov, ki so hkrati planski in izvedbeni, po eni strani izhajajo iz prereguliranosti, po drugi strani pa so posledica neupoštevanja ali napačnega tolmačenja določil odlokov in uredb, ki imata različne vzroke.

Ključne besede: prostorski akt, prostorsko načrtovanje, prostorska zakonodaja, resorna zakonodaja, dovoljevanje gradnje

Title: Preparation and Use of Spatial Plans

Abstract: Spatial plans are general legal acts for spatial planning at the national and municipal levels. They are devised through procedures of spatial planning which is in the public interest and its main objective is to coordinate various interests. In most cases, the drafting of spatial plans is complicated and takes a lot of time, partly due to the provisions of spatial and sectoral legislation, and partly due to deficient knowledge and inappropriate actions of many stakeholders participating in the procedures. The problems in the application of spatial plans arise in terms of both general and detailed planning, on the one hand resulting from overregulation, and on the other hand due to disrespect or misinterpretation of provisions contained ordinances and decrees for various reasons.

Key words: spatial plan, spatial planning, spatial legislation, sectoral legislation, building permission

Franci Gerbec

Povzetek: Pri zakonskem urejanju prostora, zlasti pri prostorskem načrtovanju in izdaji gradbenih dovoljenj, gre vedno tudi za poseg v pravno varovane interese in pravice tretjih oseb, ki niso investitor ali predlagatelj posega v prostor. Zato po naravi stvari nastane soočenje oziroma konflikt med različnimi javnimi interesi, med javnimi in zasebnimi interesi ter tudi med različnimi zasebnimi interesi. V prispevku so povzeta nekatera ključna odprta pravna vprašanja in učinkovitost njihovega usklajevanja in uveljavljanja ter ključna "orodja" oziroma načini v veljavni in predvideni novi zakonski ureditvi na tem področju. Učinkovitost usklajevanja teh interesov je nevralgična točka postopkov urejanja prostora in dovoljevanja gradenj. Avtor zato ob primerjavi z ureditvijo teh mehanizmov v nekaterih drugih državah predlaga uvedbo nekaterih podobnih rešitev v novi zakonodaji, kot je na primer ustanovitev Gradbenega sveta pri Vladi Republike Slovenije in strokovnih (izvedenskih) teles pri upravnih enotah, ki izdajajo gradbena dovoljenja. Predlaga tudi uvedbo različnih oblik zunajsodnega reševanja sporov na tem področju kot metode, ki je v primerjavi s sodnimi postopki učinkovitejša.

Ključne besede: urejanje postopka in izdaja gradbenih dovoljenj, usklajevanje in uveljavljanje javnih ter javnih in zasebnih interesov, veljavni in novi zakonski mehanizmi na tem področju, zunajsodno reševanje sporov

Title: Some Open Legal Questions of Procedures in Spatial Management and Issuing of Construction Permits

Abstract: Process of spatial legal regulation, especially spatial planning and issue of building permits, always presents intervention into legally protected interests and rights of third parties, who are not investors or proposing spatial interventions. Such interventions by their nature introduce confrontation of different public interests, of public and private interests and also of different private interests. The article summarizes some key open legal issues and effectiveness of their coordination and assertion. It also deals with key "tools" or means of valid and of expected new related legal regulation. Effectiveness of coordination of different interests is perceived as neuralgic point of spatial planning and building permits procedures. By comparing regulations of such coordination mechanisms in some other countries, the author proposes introduction of similar mechanisms to new domestic legislation, e.g. establishment of Building council (working body of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia), establishment of expert working bodies with administrative units, issuing building permits. The author also proposes introduction of various out-of-court settlement procedures as more effective methods compared to legal procedures.

Key words: issue of building permits, regulation of procedures for building permit, coordination and assertion of public and private interests, valid and new legal mechanisms related to building permits, out-of-court settlements

Nove dimenzije urejanja zapuščin

Vesna Rijavec

Povzetek: V prispevku so obravnavani problemi, povezani z evropskim potrdilom o dedovanju (EPD), v Uredbi (EU) o dedovanju št. 650/2012. Preučiti je bilo treba njegove značilnosti v kontekstu nacionalnega prava, ki se uporablja, če uredba ne določa drugače. Za razumevanje uredbe so pomembne ugotovitve o zgledih, uporabljenih pri oblikovanju instrumenta, in tudi upoštevane primerjalnopravne rešitve. Komentirana so pravila postopka, mednarodna pristojnost, določitev pristojnosti sodišča za izdajanje potrdil, izdaja, narava in učinki potrdila ter pravna sredstva. EPD je mogoče izdati le ob mednarodnem elementu, njegova uporaba je fakultativna in ne nadomešča nacionalnega naslova, obseg potrdila je omejen le na ugotavljanje pravic dedičev in volilojemnikov, če jim pripada neposredna pravica do zapustnikovega premoženja. Poseben vidik potrdila so pooblastila izvršitelja oporoke in upravitelja zapuščine. Za podatke o predhodnih vprašanjih za dedno pravico učinki potrdila veljajo. Obravnavana je problematika več postopkov o isti zapuščini.

Ključne besede: Evropsko potrdilo o dedovanju, sklep o dedovanju, zapuščina, dedič, volilojemnik, izvršitelj oporoke, upravitelj zapuščine, mednarodna pristojnost, legitimacijski učinek, učinek dobre vere

Title: European Certificate of Succession

Abstract: The contribution discusses problems of European Certificate of Succession (ESC) in Succession Regulation (EU) 650/2012 to study its characteristics from the point of view of national law, which applies when the Regulation doesn''t determine otherwise. For the understanding of the scope and meaning of the new instrument, the examples followed by the European legislator are of great importance. The author comments the procedural rules, international jurisdiction, competence of the issuing authority, issue of ESC, scope and nature of ESC, effects and legal remedies. ESC can only be issued when the estate of a deceased is situated in at least two different member states, its use is not mandatory and it does not replace the national title, its scope is limited to certify the status of heirs, legatees having direct rights in the succession and executors of wills or administrators. The effect of ESC doesn''t extend over preliminary questions for the succession right. The author discusses the problems of multiple procedures on the same succession.

Key words: European Certificate of Succession, decision in a matter of succession, inheritance, heir, legatee, executor of a will, administrator of inheritance, international jurisdiction, presumption of accuracy, effect of a good faith

Tjaša Ivanc

Povzetek: Za države članice ureditev z eno navezno okoliščino (običajno prebivališče) in določitev pristojnosti enega sodišča ne glede na to, ali gre za premično ali nepremično premoženje, nedvomno pomeni temeljno spremembo v primerjavi z različnimi kolizijskimi pravili držav članic. Avtorica obravnava tudi postopek za priznanje in razglasitev izvršljivosti tujih sodnih odločb, saj je področje dedovanja izključeno iz ureditve po Bruseljski uredbi. Ureditev samodejnega priznanja tuje sodbe odločbe in postopek razglasitve izvršljivosti ne bi smela povzročati večjih težav, saj je bila oblikovana po vzoru Bruseljske uredbe. Ne glede na trend odpravljanja eksekvature pa je uredba ta posebni postopek ohranila. Novost je ureditev čezmejnega pretoka javnih listin v V. poglavju Uredbe o dedovanju, ki je v primerjavi z drugimi instrumenti na ravni EU izvirna.

Ključne besede: Uredba o dedovanju, običajno prebivališče, načelo enotnosti dedovanja, priznanje tujih sodnih odločb, razglasitev izvršljivosti, sprejemljivost javnih listin

Title: New Regime of Planning the Succession with Cross-border Element - the Importance of European Succession Regulation

Abstract: For the Member States regulation with a connecting factor (habitual residence) and determination of the jurisdiction of one court, of whatever kind the assets in the estate may be, movable or immovable property, undoubtedly represents a fundamental change compared with the different conflict of laws rules in the Member States. The author also deals with the procedure for recognition and declaration of enforceability of foreign judgments, since the field of inheritance is excluded from the scope of the Brussels Regulation. The automatic recognition regime of the foreign judgment and the exequatur procedure should not cause major problems, since it was modelled on the Brussels Regulation. The Succession regulation maintained the special procedure, notwithstanding of the trend towards the elimination of the exequatur. Another novelty is Chapter V of the Succession Regulation, which is, compared to other EU instruments, original in its regulation on cross-border movement of authentic documents.

Key words: Succession regulation, habitual residence, principle of unity, recognition of foreign court judgments, declaration of enforceability, acceptance of authentic documents

Bojan Podgoršek

Povzetek: Naš pravni red ne dopušča popolnoma svobodnega razpolaganja s premoženjem. Razpolaganje za primer smrti je omejeno z nujnim deležem in z neveljavnostjo dednih pogodb. Te omejitve ovirajo vnaprejšnje urejanje dedovanja v različnih življenjskih situacijah. Ustava prepušča določanje načina in pogojev dedovanja zakonodajalcu. Ta bi z dopustitvijo dednih pogodb omogočil večjo svobodo pri razpolaganju s posameznikovim premoženjem. Pred sklenitvijo dedne pogodbe bi bilo treba zagotoviti popolno seznanitev strank s posledicami nameravanega posla. To pa je osnovna funkcija in poslanstvo notarja.

Ključne besede: dednopravne pogodbe, odpoved neuvedenemu dedovanju, izročilna pogodba, notarski zapis, notar

Title: The Contract of Inheritance and Agreement on the Renunciation of Inheritance

Abstract: Our legal system does not allow complete freedom to dispose of property. Disposition of property upon death is limited by the compulsory portion and by the ineffectiveness of the contract of inheritance. These restrictions constitute an obstacle for regulating succession in different life situations. The Constitution leaves to the legislature to determine the manner and the conditions of succession. Legalization of the contract of inheritance would cause greater freedom in disposing of the private property. Before the conclusion of the contract of inheritance would be necessary to ensure complete familiarization with the consequences of the intended transaction. This is the basic function and mission of a notary.

Key words: contract of inheritance, agreement on the renunciation of inheritance, agreement on the tradition, notary deed, the notary

Viktorija Žnidaršič Skubic

Povzetek: Zadolženost držav, gospodarstva, gospodinjstev in posameznikov je v današnjem svetu razmeroma velik, globalni problem. S povečanjem števila prezadolženih oseb narašča tudi število zadolženih zapustnikov. V takšnih okoliščinah zapustnikovi upniki vse pogosteje uporabljajo institut ločitve zapuščine (separatio bonorum). Tako želijo zavarovati svoje terjatve pred morebitnimi posegi dedičevih upnikov, zato naj bi ga uporabljali predvsem tisti upniki, ki se bojijo, da njihove terjatve zaradi dedičeve prezadolženosti sicer ne bodo poplačane. Problem sedanje prakse pa je, da se institut uporablja tudi v primerih, ko za to ni realne potrebe. Do različnih rešitev v praksi je pripeljala tudi neenotna sodna praksa, zato je tematika vredna kritične znanstvene presoje in morda tudi sprememb de lege ferenda.

Ključne besede: zapustnik, zapuščina, ločitev zapuščine, dolgovi zapustnika, ločitveni upnik

Title: Issues of Indebted Inheritance - Separatio Bonorum

Abstract: Indebtedness of states, economies, households and individuals is relatively large problem of todayžs society: it is a global problem. With the increase of overindebted individuals the number of indebted deceased persons is also rising. In such circumstances the creditors of the deceased are increasingly using the institute of separation of heritage (separatio bonorum). In this way they want to protect their claims before possible intervention of the heiržs creditors. That is why the institute should be used above all by the creditors who are afraid that their claims, because of the heiržs overindebtedness, wonžt be rewarded. Problem of actual practice is that the institute is used also in cases where there is no real need for using it. Different solutions in practice and in jurisprudence were accepted because of different understanding of relevant law. Because of that the topic is suitable for critical scientific assessment and also for some possible changes de lege ferenda.

Key words: deceased, heritage, separation of heritage, debts of the deceased, preferential creditor

 
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