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letnik 2018, številka 6-7, 1. 10. 2018
> Kazalo

NA NASLOVNICI

Položaj večinskega lastnika glede odločanja o vodenju poslov v delniški družbi - razlike med enotirnim in dvotirnim sistemom upravljanja

Marijan Kocbek

Povzetek: V prispevku avtor obravnava možnosti večinskega (kontrolnega) delničarja, da odloča o vodenju poslov v delniški družbi. Pri tem ugotavlja, da ZGD-1 to vprašanje v delniških družbah v dvotirnih ali enotirnih sistemih upravljanja ureja zelo različno. V delniških družbah, ki imajo nadzorni svet, uprava samostojno vodi družbo in odloča o vodenju poslov. Večinski delničar in skupščina pa za odločanje o tem razen v izrednih primerih nista pristojna. Bistveno drugače je v delniških družbah z enotirnim sistemom, kjer lahko večinski delničar prek skupščine daje navodila upravnemu odboru ali izvršnim direktorjem. Avtor podrobneje analizira korporacijskopravne institute, ki zagotavljajo takšno razmerje med organi delniških družb.
Ključne besede: večinski delničar, vodenje družbe, uprava, upravni odbor, nadzorni svet
Title: The Majority Owner and Decisions on the Conduct of Business in a Public Company - Differences between the One-Tier and Two-Tier Management Systems
Abstract: The article discusses the possibilities of a majority (controlling) shareholder to make decisions on the conduct of business in a public company. It concludes that this issue is regulated substantially differently in the Companies Act (ZGD-1), depending on whether it deals with a two-tier or a one-tier management system. In public limited companies with a supervisory board, the management board runs the company and decides on the conduct of business independently. Except in extraordinary cases, the majority shareholder and the general meeting have no (direct) power over these matters. This is fundamentally different in public companies with a one-tier system, where the majority shareholder can - through the general meeting - give instructions to the board or executive directors. The author analyses in detail the corporate legal institutes that provide such a relationship between the bodies of a public limited company.
Keywords: majority shareholder, conduct of business, management board, board of directors, supervisory board

Pregled temeljnih teoretskih problemov posebnega dela KZ-1

Damjan Korošec

Povzetek: Skupina profesorjev kazenskega prava s Pravne fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani je pred leti s pilotnim projektom začela pravnoteoretsko poglobljen komentar posebnega dela KZ-1. Projekt se je razvil v večletno monumentalno raziskovalno delo. Poimenovali smo ga Veliki znanstveni komentar posebnega dela KZ-1, ker na najbolj poglobljen način, kot pač to v slovenskih danostih zmoremo, analizira dogmatična vprašanja vsake inkriminacije in tako vsak posamičen komentar predstavlja samostojno znanstveno razpravo. Projekt je zdaj končan in besedilo je v obliki več tisoč natipkanih strani obsegajoče večdelne knjige tik pred izidom. V tem referatu slovenski javnosti prvič predstavljamo strnjen in pregleden povzetek kritičnih ugotovitev. Posebni del slovenskega kazenskega prava je daleč od optimalnega. Ima številne sistemske in druge pomanjkljivosti, zato bodo potrebni veliki napori za njegovo izboljšanje, zlasti na zakonodajni ravni. Največje težave so pri rabi tako imenovanega kolektivnega kaznivega dejanja, inkriminacijah, ki uporabljajo množinske oblike samostalnikov kot zakonske znake, pri objektivnem pogoju kaznivosti in pri hujši posledici.
Ključne besede: Slovenija, kazensko pravo, KZ-1, posebni del, kolektivno kaznivo dejanje, objektivni pogoj kaznivosti, hujša posledica
Title: Overview of Main Theoretical Problems of the Special Part of CC-1 (of Slovenia)
Abstract: Years ago, a group of criminal law professors from the Faculty of Law of the University of Ljubljana started a test project of a theoretically thorough commentary of the special part of the Slovenian Criminal Code (CC-1). This project grew into a year-long monumental research. We called it "Full Scientific Commentary of the Special Part of CC-1", because it delivers the most thorough analysis of legal theoretical questions of each and every Slovenian incrimination norm the Slovenian criminal legal science is capable of in given realities. The project is now finished and the text is in the form of several thousand pages to be published in the upcoming weeks. In this article, a summary of the overview of critical thoughts on the special part of the Slovenian CC-1 - as results of the research - is published for the first time. The special part of the Slovenian CC-1 is far from optimal. It is ridden with many systemic and other deficits. A lot of work will be needed to improve it, especially on the legislative level. The most severe deficits seem to be in the areas of the so-called collective crimes, in incriminations - where plural forms of substantives are used by the legislator - the objective prerequisite of punishability, and the praeterintentional result.
Keywords: Slovenia, criminal law, CC-1 (of Slovenia), special part, collective crime, objective prerequisite of punishability, praeterintentional result

Trendi v ureditvi nekaterih reguliranih sektorjev

Peter Grilc

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava terminološki instrumentarij v zvezi z regulacijo, deregulacijo in liberalizacijo gospodarskih sektorjev ter te procese v izbranih sektorjih, zlasti v energetskem oziroma ožje v sektorju električne energije v EU in ZDA. Predstavljene so posamezne faze omenjenih procesov in razvojne smernice v zadnjih treh desetletjih. V osemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je bila deregulacija manj očitna in razvojno še v začetni fazi, pozneje je postala intenzivnejša, v zadnjem času, posebej po finančni krizi in tudi zaradi nekaterih drugih procesov, pa smo priča ponovni regulaciji.
Ključne besede: dogovorjeno oddajanje razpisnih ponudb, regulacija, deregulacija, ponovna regulacija, delitev trga, diskriminatorno ravnanje, dogovori o cenah, ex ante ureditev, gospodarski sektorji, skupinski bojkot, koncentracije, konkurenčno pravo, liberalizacija, nadzor, notranji trg, predatorstvo, zavrnitev dobave
Title: Trends in Regulation of Certain Regulated Sectors
Abstract: The article discusses terminological issues related to regulation, deregulation and liberalisation of economic sectors; furthermore, it analyses individual sectors, especially energy in general and the electricity sector, primarily in the EU and US. It analyses and discusses phases of the above-mentioned processes and development trends, predominantly in the last three decades. During the 1980s, the deregulation was less apparent and developmental, in comparison with later periods it was mainly in the initial phase; later, however, significantly more intensive processes took place. More recently, especially after the financial crisis, and also because of some other processes, we again witness re-regulatory processes.
Keywords: bid-rigging, regulation, deregulation, re-regulation, market sharing, discriminatory behaviour, ex ante arrangement, economic sectors, collective boycott, concentrations, competition law, liberalisation, control, internal market, predatory prices, refusal to supply

Zakonska ureditev plačila za delo in njen pomen za prakso

Luka Tičar

Povzetek: Plača je eden temeljnih institutov delovnega prava in kot taka pomeni prvi razlog in motiv delavca za delo, obveznost plačila pa je temeljna obveznost delodajalca kot stranke pogodbe o zaposlitvi. Zato je izjemnega pomena pravna ureditev plačila za delo, ki jo sestavljajo zakonske norme in norme v avtonomnih pravnih virih, to je predvsem kolektivnih pogodbah. Zakonska ureditev je med drugim ključni način izpolnjevanja obveznosti iz ratificiranih mednarodnih dokumentov, kot sta Konvencija MOD št. 95 o varstvu plače in MESL, če omenimo le dva. Veljavna zakonska ureditev vsebuje tudi nekaj rešitev, ki bi se v prihodnosti morda lahko spremenile. Avtor izpostavi nekatere rešitve, kot so dodatek za delovno dobo, povračila stroškov v zvezi z delom, določanje višine osnovne plače v pogodbo o zaposlitvi idr.
Ključne besede: plača, obveznost plačila, varstvo plače, osnovna plača, dodatek za delovno dobo
Title: Statutory Regulation of Remuneration for Work and its Relevancy for the Practise
Abstract: Wage is one of the fundamental institutions of labour law and as such represents the worker's first reason and motive to work. Obligation to pay is also a fundamental obligation of the employer. Therefore, legal regulation of remuneration is of extraordinary importance. Legal regulation of remuneration consists of legislation and autonomous legal sources, especially collective agreements. Legislation represents a key mode of fulfilling state obligations to comply withvarious ratified international documents, such as the ILO Convention no. 95 on Protection of Wages and the Revised ESC, to mention just two of them. Positive legislation has some solutions that might change in the future. The author outlines some of them, like seniority bonus, reimbursement of work-related expenses, determination of basic wages in employment contract etc.
Keywords: wage, obligation to pay, protection of wages, basic wage, seniority bonus

Sodelovalno gospodarstvo in delitvena ekonomija: pojmi in potreba po evropskem pristopu

Janja Hojnik

Povzetek: Prispevek na kratko opiše različne oblike poslovnih modelov, ki jih uvrščamo pod koncepta sodelovalnega gospodarstva in delitvene ekonomije, nekatere poskuse opredelitve in razmejitve med njimi ter najbolj izpostavljena področja pravnih izzivov, povezanih s temi novimi poslovnimi modeli. Poudarjeno je, da so poslovni modeli delitvene ekonomije in sodelovalnega gospodarstva izziv za celo vrsto pravnih področij. Avtorica poudarja, da tako kot že leta ne moremo biti več zaprti samo v nacionalni pravni red, brez upoštevanja globalizacije, se v prihodnje ne bomo več mogli izogniti vplivu digitalizacije na pravo. Sodišče EU je v zadnjih mesecih že sprejelo odločitev v dveh zahtevah za predhodno odločanje o statusu Uberja po pravu EU, veliko več postopkov zoper to podjetje pa kot odziv na bes tradicionalnih taksističnih družb poteka pred različnimi forumi držav članic. Svetovni splet odpira zahtevna vprašanja, povezana z varstvom osebnih podatkov, varstvom potrošnikov, statusom delavca, davčnimi obvezami ipd. Avtorica sklene, da čeprav lahko za številna vprašanja uporabimo že obstoječa pravila, bomo za nekatera potrebovali hitro odzivno zakonodajo in sodišča, ki bodo razumela posebnosti novih poslovnih modelov.
Ključne besede: platformna ekonomija, Uber, Airbnb, evropska agenda, subsidiarnost, Sodišče EU, poštena konkurenca, trajnostni razvoj
Title: Collaborative and Sharing Economy: Concepts and a Need for a European Approach
Abstract: The paper briefly examines different forms of business models that are premised under the concept of collaborative economy and sharing economy, some endeavours to define and differentiate them, as well as the most exposed areas of legal challenges associated with these new business models. It is pointed out that the business models of sharing and collaborative economy challenge a whole range of areas of law. The author highlights that just as we can no longer be confined only in the national legal order, not taking into account globalisation, in the future we will no longer be able to avoid the impact of digitisation on the law. The EU Court of Justice has in recent months adopted judgments in two requests for a preliminary ruling on the status of Uber under EU law, and many other procedures against this company take place before different forums in Member States as a response to the fury of traditional taxi companies. The Internet raises challenging issues related to the protection of personal data, consumer protection, status of workers, duty to pay taxes etc. The author concludes that, although existing rules already apply to a number of questions, others require a quick and responsive legislation and courts with an understanding of the peculiarities of new business models.
Keywords: platform economy, Uber, Airbnb, European Agenda, subsidiarity, EU Court, fair competition, sustainable development

VSEBINA

Pravni izzivi sodelovalnega gospodarstva v digitalni dobi

Ana Vlahek, Matija Damjan

Povzetek: Digitalne platforme za kratkoročno oddajanje stanovanj so lastnikom zelo olajšale odplačno oddajanje prostorov za namene turistične nastanitve. Mnogi posamezniki oddajajo stanovanjske nepremičnine prek digitalnih platform kot dopolnilno gospodarsko dejavnost, pri čemer se zanašajo na določbe stanovanjske zakonodaje o "navadnem" stanovanjskem najemu, ki niso zasnovane za namene zagotavljanja turističnih nastanitev, ampak za urejanje dolgoročnih stanovanjskih razmerij. Pri oddajanju stanovanj turistom pa ne upoštevajo strožjih zakonskih zahtev za opravljanje dejavnosti v stanovanju. Zelo razširjeno oddajanje stanovanj v kratkoročni turistični najem je moteče za redne stanovalce v večstanovanjskih zgradbah in ima lahko negativen vpliv na stanovanjski najemni trg, zato so v nekaterih državah in mestih začeli to dejavnost posebej urejati in omejevati. Namen prispevka je orisati, kakšni so pogoji za kratkoročno oddajanje stanovanj po veljavni slovenski ureditvi in kakšen je pristop digitalnih platform k zagotavljanju izpolnjevanja teh pogojev, ter ugotoviti, kje so veljavna pravila neustrezna in kako bi jih bilo mogoče izboljšati.
Ključne besede: Airbnb, kratkoročni najem stanovanja, stanovanjsko pravo, sodelovalno gospodarstvo, platforma za najem bivalne enote, etažna lastnina, gostinska dejavnost, omejitve kratkoročnega stanovanjskega najema
Title: The Impact of Collaborative Economy on EU Member States’ Housing Laws
Abstract: Digital short-term rental platforms made it very easy for owners to rent out their premises for the purpose of tourist accommodation. Many individuals rent out their residential premises through digital platforms as their complementary economic activity, while relying on the rules of housing legislation that were not designed for the purpose of providing tourist accommodation but to regulate long-term rental housing relations. When renting apartments to tourists, they do not take into account the more stringent legal requirements for performing an economic activity in an apartment. Widespread short-term rental of apartments can be disturbing for regular residents in apartment buildings and can have a negative impact on the housing rental market. Consequently, some countries and cities have started regulating and limiting short-term tourist rentals. The purpose of the article is to outline the conditions for short-term rentals of residential premises according to the current Slovenian legislation, and the approach of digital platforms to ensure compliance with these conditions, as well as to determine where the current rules are inadequate and how they could be improved.
Keywords: Airbnb, short-term apartment rental, housing laws, sharing economy, house renting platform, apartment ownership, accommodation services, short-term rental restrictions

Aktualna vprašanja korporacijskega prava

Peter Podgorelec

Povzetek: Skrb za zakonitost delovanja je ena temeljnih dolžnosti poslovodstva vsake družbe. V primeru koncernske povezanosti se ta dolžnost razširi še na odvisne družbe, kar pomeni, da je uprava odgovorna za zakonitost delovanja ne le "lastne", to je obvladujoče družbe, ampak tudi odvisnih družb. To izhaja iz splošne določbe 265. člena Zakona o gospodarskih družbah (ZGD-1) o skrbnosti in odgovornosti članov organov vodenja ali nadzora. Zaradi nezakonitosti na ravni odvisnih družb lahko obvladujoči družbi nastane posredna, v nekaterih primerih pa celo neposredna škoda. V zvezi z vzpostavitvijo sistema koncernske "skladnosti" (angl. compliance) in potrebnim informacijskim tokom med družbami v skupini je nekaj pravnih dilem, ki pa so omejene na primere, ko je odvisna družba organizirana kot delniška družba.
Ključne besede: koncernske družbe, nezakonitosti na ravni odvisnih družb, dolžnosti uprave obvladujoče družbe, koncernski sistem "skladnosti", implementacija ukrepov in informacijski tok v skupini družb
Title: Group Compliance Liability of the Dominant Company's Management Board
Abstract: Compliance concern is a fundamental duty of any company management. For a group of companies, this duty also extends to subsidiaries, which means that the management board is not only liable for the compliance of its "own", i.e. dominant company, but also of subsidiaries. This follows from the general provision of Article 265 of the Companies Act (ZGD-1) on the care and liability of the members of the management or supervisory bodies. Due to the unlawfulness at the level of subsidiaries, the dominant company may suffer indirect or, in some cases, even direct damage. In connection with the establishment of the group compliance system and the necessary information flow between companies within the group, certain legal dilemmas exist, which are limited to cases where a subsidiary is organised as a public limited company.
Keywords: group of companies, unlawfulness at the level of subsidiaries, duties of the dominant company management board, group compliance system, implementation of measures and information flow within a group of company

Marijan Kocbek

Povzetek: V prispevku avtor obravnava možnosti večinskega (kontrolnega) delničarja, da odloča o vodenju poslov v delniški družbi. Pri tem ugotavlja, da ZGD-1 to vprašanje v delniških družbah v dvotirnih ali enotirnih sistemih upravljanja ureja zelo različno. V delniških družbah, ki imajo nadzorni svet, uprava samostojno vodi družbo in odloča o vodenju poslov. Večinski delničar in skupščina pa za odločanje o tem razen v izrednih primerih nista pristojna. Bistveno drugače je v delniških družbah z enotirnim sistemom, kjer lahko večinski delničar prek skupščine daje navodila upravnemu odboru ali izvršnim direktorjem. Avtor podrobneje analizira korporacijskopravne institute, ki zagotavljajo takšno razmerje med organi delniških družb.
Ključne besede: večinski delničar, vodenje družbe, uprava, upravni odbor, nadzorni svet
Title: The Majority Owner and Decisions on the Conduct of Business in a Public Company - Differences between the One-Tier and Two-Tier Management Systems
Abstract: The article discusses the possibilities of a majority (controlling) shareholder to make decisions on the conduct of business in a public company. It concludes that this issue is regulated substantially differently in the Companies Act (ZGD-1), depending on whether it deals with a two-tier or a one-tier management system. In public limited companies with a supervisory board, the management board runs the company and decides on the conduct of business independently. Except in extraordinary cases, the majority shareholder and the general meeting have no (direct) power over these matters. This is fundamentally different in public companies with a one-tier system, where the majority shareholder can - through the general meeting - give instructions to the board or executive directors. The author analyses in detail the corporate legal institutes that provide such a relationship between the bodies of a public limited company.
Keywords: majority shareholder, conduct of business, management board, board of directors, supervisory board

Anja Strojin Štampar

Povzetek: Prejemki so eno izmed najpomembnejših orodij, s katerimi delničarji usklajujejo svoje interese z interesi oseb, ki jim poverijo vodenje in nadzor družbe. V zadnjih dveh desetletjih so se razprave glede prejemkov osredotočile zlasti na primernost politike plačil v javnih delniških družbah in na vlogo delničarjev pri oblikovanju politike prejemkov, s tem namenom pa je bilo v Sloveniji sprejetih več zakonskih dopolnitev in priporočil dobre prakse. Najnovejši pravni akt na tem področju je Delničarska direktiva II, ki podrobneje razčlenjuje razkritja prejemkov in utrjuje vlogo delničarjev pri določanju prejemkov poslovodstev v obliki bodisi zavezujočih bodisi le posvetovalnih sklepov na podlagi jasnega, razumljivega in celovitega pregleda politike prejemkov družbe. Politika prejemkov naj bo oblikovana tako, da bo prispevala k uresničevanju poslovne strategije, dolgoročnih interesov in vzdržnosti družbe, zato ne bi smela biti v celoti ali vsaj pretežno povezana s kratkoročnimi cilji. Prispevek povzema veljavno ureditev prejemkov organov vodenja in nadzora v Republiki Sloveniji. Slovensko zakonodajo je treba uskladiti z direktivo do junija 2019.
Ključne besede: politika prejemkov, organi vodenja, organi nadzora, delničarska direktiva, razkritja prejemkov, fiksni in variabilni prejemek
Title: Directors’ Remuneration Policy - De Lege Lata and its Harmonisation with the Shareholder’ Rights Directive II
Abstract: Remuneration is one of the key instruments for shareholders to align their interests and those of their directors. Over the last two decades, the discussion on the remuneration has been focused primarily on the appropriateness of remuneration policies in the listed companies, and on the role of shareholders in the determination of remuneration policy (say-on-pay initiatives). To this end, numerous law amendments and best practice recommendations have been adopted. The latest legal act in this field is the Shareholders' Rights Directive II, which provides for a more detailed disclosure of directors' remuneration and strengthens the role of shareholders in determining remuneration policies, either through a binding or an advisory vote on the remuneration policy, which should be based on a clear, understandable and comprehensive overview of the company's remuneration policy. The remuneration policy should be determined in such a way that it contributes to the business strategy, long-term interests and sustainability of the company, and should not be linked entirely or mainly to short-term objectives. The article summarises the current remuneration regulation and say-on-pay rights in Slovenia. The Slovenian legislation should be harmonised with the Directive by June 2019.
Keywords: remuneration policy, directors, shareholders' rights directive, remuneration report, individual director's remuneration, fixed and variable remuneration

Borut Bratina

Povzetek:Družba z omejeno odgovornostjo ima že 125-letno tradicijo in je še vedno najbolj priljubljena statusna oblika gospodarske družbe. Danes je aktualna njena uporaba za tehnološko najbolj inovativna podjetja (zagonska podjetja), njena različica - enoosebna d. o. o. - pa naj bi se uporabljala v skladu s pravom EU za čezmejno delovanje na enotnem evropskem trgu. V članku avtor prikaže osnovne značilnosti zagonskih podjetij in njihovo financiranje s prvo prodajo žetonov - ICO. Ob tem opozori na najnovejšo sodno prakso v Sloveniji na področju civilnih odškodninskih sporov in kaznivega dejanja zlorabe položaja v enoosebni d. o. o. Ključne besede: digitalizacija v pravu družb, veriženje blokov, pametne pogodbe, množično financiranje, prva prodaja žetonov, enoosebna družba, zloraba položaja, odškodninska in kazenska odgovornost
Title: Novelties in Limited Liability Company Business Operations Abstract: A limited liability company has a 125-year tradition and is still the most popular corporate legal form. Recently, this business structure is being used for high-tech companies, especially start-ups, and its sub-form - the single-person limited liability company - may be used in accordance with the European regulation for cross-border activities on the European Single Market. In this article, the author introduces the main characteristics of start-up companies and forms of financing with initial coin offerings. The author points out recent court decisions in Slovenia in the field of civil liability and indemnity cases and the criminal liability for abuse of position or trust in single-person limited liability companies. Keywords: digitalisation in company law, blockchain, smart contracts, crowdfunding, initial coin offering, societas unius personae - single-person limited liability company, abuse of position or trust, civil and criminal responsibility - liability

Saša Prelič

Povzetek: V prispevku so obravnavane posebnosti v postopku sodnega preizkušanja primernosti menjalnega razmerja oziroma denarne odpravnine. Avtor obravnava pravne položaje, v katerih so imetniki deležev upravičeni do deležev po ustreznem menjalnem razmerju oziroma do denarne odpravnine. Primernost obeh premoženjskih upravičenj je dopustno preverjati le v posebnem sodnem postopku.
Ključne besede: denarna odpravnina, menjalno razmerje, deleži, poravnalni odbor, sodni preizkus
Title: Judicial Test of the Adequacy of Exchange Ratio or Appraisal Remedy for Minority Shareholders
Abstract:The article discusses the peculiarities of a judicial test of an exchange ratio and adequacy of appraisal remedy. The author examines the legal positions that entitle shareholders to obtain shares according to the appropriate exchange ratio or to obtain appraisal remedy. Adequacy of the aforementioned rights is legally admissible only within special judicial procedure.
Keywords: appraisal remedy, exchange ratio, shares, settlement committee, judicial test

Kazenskopravna sekcija

Katja Filipčič

Povzetek: Slovensko kazensko pravo si prizadeva močneje zaščititi otroke pred zlorabami. Zato so bile v zadnjih dvajsetih letih sprejete številne spremembe Kazenskega zakonika (KZ-1). Nekatere so bile namenjene odpravi nedosledne uporabe izrazov otrok, mladoletnik in mladoletna oseba. Slovenija pri tem vztraja pri terminološki tradiciji iz obdobja Jugoslavije. Večjemu varstvu otrok so namenjene težje oblike kaznivih dejanj ali posebne inkriminacije. Pri tem je slovenski zakonodajalec nesistemski. Spregledano je tudi tudi vprašanje, ali in kdaj je etično sporno oblikovati starost kot kvalifikatorno okoliščino kaznivega dejanja. Ravno tako dogmatično sporno je vezati začetek teka zastaralnih rokov za kazenski pregon na starost žrtve.
Ključne besede: otrok žrtev, privolitvena sposobnost, zastaranje, Kazenski zakonik
Title: Criminal Law Protection of Children
Abstract: Slovenian criminal law seeks to protect children more effectively against abuse. Therefore, in the last twenty years, numerous amendments to the Penal Code have been adopted. Some of them were aimed at eliminating the terminology inconsistency in using the terms a child, a minor and a person under the age of majority. Slovenia insists on the terminological tradition from the time of Yugoslavia. Stronger protection of children is provided by higher penalties in the case of child victims or special incriminations. The Slovenian legislator is non-systematic in this regard. The question is also raised whether and when it is ethically disputable to shape the age as the qualifying circumstance of the crime. It is equally dogmatically challenging to link the beginning of the limitation period for criminal prosecution to the age of the victim.
Keywords: child victim, age of consent, statute of limitation, Penal Code

Boštjan Valenčič

Povzetek: V Kazenskem zakoniku (KZ-1) so (neredke) inkriminacije opisane tako, da niti v kazenskopravni doktrini niti v sodni praksi ni enotnih stališč o prav(n)i naravi posameznih delov opisa kaznivega dejanja, ali je torej določen zakonski znak razumeti kot prepovedano posledico kaznivega dejanja ali (povečini) nepravi objektivni pogoj kaznivosti. Če je na primer pri kaznivem dejanju uboja (115. člen KZ-1) povsem nedvoumno, da je prepovedana posledica izvršitvenega ravnanja odvzeto življenje (smrt ubitega), in je na drugi strani arhetipski primer (tudi v primerljivih kazenskih zakonikih sosednjih kazenskopravnih sistemov) kaznivega dejanja z vsebujočim objektivnim pogojem kaznivosti kaznivo dejanje sodelovanja pri pretepu (126. člen KZ-1), pa so prometna nesreča, v kateri nekdo dobi hudo telesno poškodbo (323. člen KZ-1), razširitev nalezljive bolezni (177. člen KZ-1) in občutno poslabšanje zdravja (179. člen KZ-1) opisi v inkriminacijskih normah, katerih prav(n)a narava spodbuja številne doktrinarne razprave. Namen prispevka je osvetliti nekatere težave, do katerih taka pravna nejasnost lahko privede, hkrati pa ponuditi rešitev, ki je povsem enostavna in primerjalnopravno že sprejeta - tj. nadomestiti objektivne pogoje kaznivosti s prepovedano posledico v obliki ogrozitve.
Ključne besede: prepovedana posledica, objektivni pogoj kaznivosti, abstraktna in konkretna ogrozitev, širjenje nalezljivih bolezni, prometna nesreča, občutno poslabšanje zdravja
Title: Prohibited Consequence or Objective Condition of Criminality in Selected Criminal Offences
Abstract: In the Slovenian Penal Code, KZ-1, some (not so rare) criminal offences are described in such a way that there are no uniform views on the exact nature of the individual parts of the description of the criminal offence, neither in the criminal law doctrine nor in case law. It is therefore stipulated that the legal description is to be regarded as prohibited consequence of the criminal offence or (mostly) the objective condition of criminality. For example, while in the case of a criminal offence of killing (Article 115 KZ-1), it is quite unambiguous that the consequence of such action is the death of someone, a criminal offence of participation in a fight (Article 126 of the KZ-1), on the other hand, is an archetypal case (also in comparable criminal codes of neighbouring criminal law systems) of a criminal offence with an objective condition of criminality, a traffic accident in which someone receives a serious bodily injury (Article 323 KZ-1), the spread of infectious diseases (Article 177 KZ-1), and significant deterioration of health (Article 179 KZ-1) are described in criminal norms whose (legal) nature is prompts numerous doctrinal discussions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight certain problems that such a legal ambiguity can bring, while offering a solution that is quite simple and comparatively legally accepted - i.e. to replace objective conditions of criminality with prohibited consequences in the form of a description that legal goods are endangered.
Keywords: prohibited consequence, objective condition of criminality, abstract and concrete threat, spread of infectious diseases, traffic accidents, significant deterioration of health

Damjan Korošec

Povzetek: Skupina profesorjev kazenskega prava s Pravne fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani je pred leti s pilotnim projektom začela pravnoteoretsko poglobljen komentar posebnega dela KZ-1. Projekt se je razvil v večletno monumentalno raziskovalno delo. Poimenovali smo ga Veliki znanstveni komentar posebnega dela KZ-1, ker na najbolj poglobljen način, kot pač to v slovenskih danostih zmoremo, analizira dogmatična vprašanja vsake inkriminacije in tako vsak posamičen komentar predstavlja samostojno znanstveno razpravo. Projekt je zdaj končan in besedilo je v obliki več tisoč natipkanih strani obsegajoče večdelne knjige tik pred izidom. V tem referatu slovenski javnosti prvič predstavljamo strnjen in pregleden povzetek kritičnih ugotovitev. Posebni del slovenskega kazenskega prava je daleč od optimalnega. Ima številne sistemske in druge pomanjkljivosti, zato bodo potrebni veliki napori za njegovo izboljšanje, zlasti na zakonodajni ravni. Največje težave so pri rabi tako imenovanega kolektivnega kaznivega dejanja, inkriminacijah, ki uporabljajo množinske oblike samostalnikov kot zakonske znake, pri objektivnem pogoju kaznivosti in pri hujši posledici.
Ključne besede: Slovenija, kazensko pravo, KZ-1, posebni del, kolektivno kaznivo dejanje, objektivni pogoj kaznivosti, hujša posledica
Title: Overview of Main Theoretical Problems of the Special Part of CC-1 (of Slovenia)
Abstract: Years ago, a group of criminal law professors from the Faculty of Law of the University of Ljubljana started a test project of a theoretically thorough commentary of the special part of the Slovenian Criminal Code (CC-1). This project grew into a year-long monumental research. We called it "Full Scientific Commentary of the Special Part of CC-1", because it delivers the most thorough analysis of legal theoretical questions of each and every Slovenian incrimination norm the Slovenian criminal legal science is capable of in given realities. The project is now finished and the text is in the form of several thousand pages to be published in the upcoming weeks. In this article, a summary of the overview of critical thoughts on the special part of the Slovenian CC-1 - as results of the research - is published for the first time. The special part of the Slovenian CC-1 is far from optimal. It is ridden with many systemic and other deficits. A lot of work will be needed to improve it, especially on the legislative level. The most severe deficits seem to be in the areas of the so-called collective crimes, in incriminations - where plural forms of substantives are used by the legislator - the objective prerequisite of punishability, and the praeterintentional result.
Keywords: Slovenia, criminal law, CC-1 (of Slovenia), special part, collective crime, objective prerequisite of punishability, praeterintentional result

Miha Šepec

Povzetek: Kazniva dejanja zoper premoženje, opredeljena v 23. poglavju Kazenskega zakonika, kot svojo temeljno dobrino varujejo premoženje države, pravne osebe ali posameznika kot skupek lastninskih pravic na premičnih in nepremičnih stvareh, varstvo pa zajema tudi stvarne pravice na tuji stvari, obligacijske pravice, pravice intelektualne lastnine in korporacijske pravice. Premoženjski delikti so v primerjalni zakonodaji urejeni izredno pestro, medtem ko je varstvo v našem KZ-1 zastavljeno zelo tradicionalno, posledica tega pa je, da številnih nepravnih posegov v premoženje, ki nepravnostno kličejo po kaznivosti, ni mogoče subsumirati pod nobeno kaznivo dejanje v naši kazenski zakonodaji. Po problematiki izstopa prilastitveni namen pri premoženjskih deliktih, predvsem pri kaznivem dejanju tatvine po 204. členu KZ-1, ki iz dosega inkriminacije izloča vse protipravne posege v oblast nad stvarjo, ki niso izvršeni z namenom prilastitve (neupravičena uporaba tuje stvari, poškodovanje tuje stvari in podobno). V prispevku se avtor ukvarja tudi z razmerjem med tatvino in neupravičeno uporabo tuje stvari (oziroma tatvino rabe), ki je v naši kazenski zakonodaji neustrezno urejeno, ter s skrajno nenavadnim neobstojem inkriminacije tatvine storitve.
Ključne besede: prilastitev, tatvina, kaznivo dejanje, kazenski zakonik, premoženjski delikt
Title: Appropriation as the Bottleneck of the Slovenian Property Criminal Law
Abstract: Criminal offences against property, as defined in Chapter 23 of the Criminal Code, protect the property of the State, a legal person or an individual as a set of property rights, as well as rights of obligations, intellectual property rights, and corporate rights. Property offences are exceptionally diversified in comparative law, while protection in the Slovenian Criminal Code is very traditional, with the result that a number of unlawful interventions in property cannot be subsumed under any of the criminal offences in Slovenian criminal legislation. A major problem presents the appropriation purpose defined in the criminal offence of theft under Article 204 of the Criminal Code, which excludes from the scope of criminalisation all unlawful interference into the property of another that has not been committed for the purpose of confiscation or appropriation. We will also present problematic relationship between the criminal offence of theft and the unjustified use of property belonging to another (theft of usage), which is inadequately regulated in our criminal law, and the extremely unusual absence of incrimination of the theft of services of another.
Keywords: appropriation, theft, criminal offence, Criminal Code, property offence

Pravni vidiki regulacije in liberalizacije gospodarskih sektorjev

Peter Grilc

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava terminološki instrumentarij v zvezi z regulacijo, deregulacijo in liberalizacijo gospodarskih sektorjev ter te procese v izbranih sektorjih, zlasti v energetskem oziroma ožje v sektorju električne energije v EU in ZDA. Predstavljene so posamezne faze omenjenih procesov in razvojne smernice v zadnjih treh desetletjih. V osemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je bila deregulacija manj očitna in razvojno še v začetni fazi, pozneje je postala intenzivnejša, v zadnjem času, posebej po finančni krizi in tudi zaradi nekaterih drugih procesov, pa smo priča ponovni regulaciji.
Ključne besede: dogovorjeno oddajanje razpisnih ponudb, regulacija, deregulacija, ponovna regulacija, delitev trga, diskriminatorno ravnanje, dogovori o cenah, ex ante ureditev, gospodarski sektorji, skupinski bojkot, koncentracije, konkurenčno pravo, liberalizacija, nadzor, notranji trg, predatorstvo, zavrnitev dobave
Title: Trends in Regulation of Certain Regulated Sectors
Abstract: The article discusses terminological issues related to regulation, deregulation and liberalisation of economic sectors; furthermore, it analyses individual sectors, especially energy in general and the electricity sector, primarily in the EU and US. It analyses and discusses phases of the above-mentioned processes and development trends, predominantly in the last three decades. During the 1980s, the deregulation was less apparent and developmental, in comparison with later periods it was mainly in the initial phase; later, however, significantly more intensive processes took place. More recently, especially after the financial crisis, and also because of some other processes, we again witness re-regulatory processes.
Keywords: bid-rigging, regulation, deregulation, re-regulation, market sharing, discriminatory behaviour, ex ante arrangement, economic sectors, collective boycott, concentrations, competition law, liberalisation, control, internal market, predatory prices, refusal to supply

Matej Kavčič

Povzetek: Razvoj in uporaba novih tehnologij ustvarjata številne regulatorne dileme in zahtevata ustrezne regulatorne odzive. Ta prispevek prikazuje posamezna regulatorna vprašanja in nakazane trende na primerih regulacije zbiranja sredstev z uporabo tehnologije podatkovnih blokov (ICO), regulacije velikega podatkovja s pravili varstva konkurence in regulacije uporabe algoritmov pri omejevalnih sporazumih.
Ključne besede: nove tehnologije, regulacija, kriptožetoni, primarna izdaja žetonov, veliko podatkovje, umetna inteligenca, algoritmi, koluzija robotov
Title: New Technologies and Regulatory Trends - An Attorney's Perspective
Abstract: Development and usage of new technologies create regulatory dilemmas and demand appropriate reactions of regulators. This article presents regulatory questions and indicated trends using examples of ICO regulation, regulation of big data with competition law, and restriction of collusion using algorithms.
Keywords: new technologies, regulation, crypto-tokens, initial coin offering, big data, artificial intelligence, algorithms, robot collusion

Til Rozman

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava regulacijo trga poštnih storitev v luči spremenjenih tržnih razmer. Uvodni predstavitvi sledi poglavje, ki prikazuje vsebinski oris regulacije v EU. Tretje poglavje temeljne koncepte problematizira z vidika tržnih trendov. Po dvajsetih letih od sprejema (prve) Direktive je očitno, da je konkurenca v številnih državah članicah relativno šibko razvita na trgu pisem in relativno dobro razvita na trgu paketov. Dosedanje izkušnje z izvajanjem Direktive v praksi in korenite spremembe trga dajejo legitimnost vprašanju: Ali Direktiva še ustreza svojemu namenu? Ker obseg tega prispevka ne omogoča celovite obravnave zastavljenega vprašanja, se osredotoča le na nekatere vidike - opredelitev univerzalne storitve, njene kakovosti in financiranja, razumevanje tarifnih načel in regulacija dostopa do omrežja.
Ključne besede: univerzalna poštna storitev, dostop do poštnega omrežja, tarifna načela, nediskriminacija, kompenzacijski sklad
Title: Regulation and Liberalisation of the Postal Services Market
Abstract: This paper addresses regulation of the postal services market in the light of the changing market conditions. Introduction to the topic is followed by the second chapter, which describes the EU regulatory framework. The third chapter challenges key concepts of postal regulation from the perspective of the changing market conditions. 20 years after adoption of the first Directive, it is evident that competition is, on the one hand, weak in the letter market and, on the other hand, well developed in the parcel market. The changing market and years of experiences with the Directive legitimise the following question: Is the Directive still fit for its purpose? Since the scope of the paper does not allow a comprehensive approach, only fragments of the selected contemporary issues are addressed - definition of the universal service, its quality and financing, understanding of the tariff principles and access to the network.
Keywords: universal postal service, access to the postal network, tariff principles, non-discrimination, compensation fund

Aleš Ferčič

Povzetek: V prispevku so na kratko predstavljeni posebne okoliščine in ozadje uveljavljanja pravil o državnih pomočeh v izbranih reguliranih sektorjih in njihov pomen za uspešno vzpostavitev notranjega trga. Sledi pregled relevantnih horizontalnih in sektorskih pravil oziroma aktov o državnih pomočeh. Težišče prispevka je na vprašanju, kako je s temeljnimi postulati pravne ureditve državnih pomoči v izbranih reguliranih sektorjih. Raziskane so tudi meje dopustnosti državnih pomoči oziroma, natančneje, orodja, ki jih lahko uporabimo v ta namen.
Ključne besede: državna pomoč, regulirani sektorji, liberalizacija, tržna konkurenca, infrastruktura
Title: Limits of Admissibility of State Aid Measures in Regulated Sectors
Abstract: The article briefly discusses special circumstances and the background regarding the enforcement of state aid rules in the selected regulated sectors as well as its importance for successful internal market integration. This is followed by a review of relevant horizontal and sector-specific state aid acts. The very core of the article is, however, the question of whether fundamental principles of the supranational legal state aid system are fully applicable in the selected regulated sectors. Moreover, the article explores the limits of the admissibility of state aid measures or, more precisely, the tools which can be used for this purpose.
Keywords: state aid, regulated sectors, liberalisation, market competition, infrastructure

Izzivi pravne ureditve plačila za delo v zasebnem sektorju

Luka Tičar

Povzetek: Plača je eden temeljnih institutov delovnega prava in kot taka pomeni prvi razlog in motiv delavca za delo, obveznost plačila pa je temeljna obveznost delodajalca kot stranke pogodbe o zaposlitvi. Zato je izjemnega pomena pravna ureditev plačila za delo, ki jo sestavljajo zakonske norme in norme v avtonomnih pravnih virih, to je predvsem kolektivnih pogodbah. Zakonska ureditev je med drugim ključni način izpolnjevanja obveznosti iz ratificiranih mednarodnih dokumentov, kot sta Konvencija MOD št. 95 o varstvu plače in MESL, če omenimo le dva. Veljavna zakonska ureditev vsebuje tudi nekaj rešitev, ki bi se v prihodnosti morda lahko spremenile. Avtor izpostavi nekatere rešitve, kot so dodatek za delovno dobo, povračila stroškov v zvezi z delom, določanje višine osnovne plače v pogodbo o zaposlitvi idr.
Ključne besede: plača, obveznost plačila, varstvo plače, osnovna plača, dodatek za delovno dobo
Title: Statutory Regulation of Remuneration for Work and its Relevancy for the Practise
Abstract: Wage is one of the fundamental institutions of labour law and as such represents the worker's first reason and motive to work. Obligation to pay is also a fundamental obligation of the employer. Therefore, legal regulation of remuneration is of extraordinary importance. Legal regulation of remuneration consists of legislation and autonomous legal sources, especially collective agreements. Legislation represents a key mode of fulfilling state obligations to comply withvarious ratified international documents, such as the ILO Convention no. 95 on Protection of Wages and the Revised ESC, to mention just two of them. Positive legislation has some solutions that might change in the future. The author outlines some of them, like seniority bonus, reimbursement of work-related expenses, determination of basic wages in employment contract etc.
Keywords: wage, obligation to pay, protection of wages, basic wage, seniority bonus

Andreja Toš Zajšek

Povzetek: Širina obravnavanega instituta plačila za delo in vrste drugih pojmov, ki se uporabljajo kot sopomenke, pomeni za delavca osnovni, včasih celo edini vir sredstev za preživljanje sebe in svoje družine. Dogovor o plači, ki mora biti vedno v denarni obliki, in o morebitnih drugih vrstah plačil, če je tako določeno s kolektivno pogodbo, je bistveni element pogodbe o zaposlitvi. Pri določanju in urejanju razmerij med delavci in delodajalci v kolektivnih pogodbah je zelo pomembna vloga socialnih partnerjev in države. Socialni partnerji neposredno določajo ta razmerja, država pa lahko posega vanje ob določanju dajatev od prejemkov delavca in tako vpliva na njihovo izplačano višino, ob tem pa mora zagotavljati učinkovito pravno varstvo pravic delavcev.
Ključne besede: plačilo za delo, plača, osnovna plača, dodatki, prejemki iz delovnih razmerij, socialni dialog, kolektivna pogodba, pravno varstvo
Title: Autonomous Work Payment Arrangement Today and Tomorrow - The Worker Union’s Perspective
Abstract: The scope of the "payment-for-work" institute and a number of other terms used as synonyms for the salary, often represents a basic, sometimes even the only, means of subsistence for workers themselves and their family. The salary agreement, which must always be in cash and other types of payments, if so provided by a collective agreement, is an essential element of the employment contract. The role of the social partners and the state is very important in regulating and determining the relationships between workers and employers in collective agreements. The social partners directly determine these relationships, and the state may encroach upon determining benefits from the workers' income, thus affecting itsamount paid to the worker and ensuring effective legal protection of workers' rights.
Keywords: payment for work, salary, basic salary, allowances, benefits from employment relationships, social dialogue, collective agreement, legal protection

Maja Skorupan

Povzetek: Plačilo za delo je bistven element delovnega razmerja. Koliko sta stranki, delavec in delodajalec, prosti pri njegovem urejanju v pogodbi o zaposlitvi, je vprašanje, ki je v praksi zelo aktualno. Ni vse prepuščeno samo njuni volji, pri določanju plačila je treba upoštevati vrsto predpisov, ki omejujejo svobodno dogovarjanje. Plačilo za delo je treba razumeti kot odmeno za opravljanje dela, saj je na strani delavca bistveno, da izpolnjuje temeljno obveznost iz sklenjene pogodbe, ki je opravljanje dela. Elementi plačila za delo so predmet dogovora med socialnimi partnerji in ti dogovori pomembno vplivajo na razvoj plačnega sistema v praksi. Kolektivne pogodbe dejavnosti so tako dober kazalnik raznovrstnosti urejanja plačila za delo, v katerem se poleg nadgradnje zakonskih pravic določajo tudi dodatne sestavine plačila za delo.
Ključne besede: plačilo za delo, plača, osnovna plača, dodatki, prejemki iz delovnih razmerij, nadomestilo plače, socialni dialog, kolektivna pogodba, poslovodna oseba, vodilni delavec, dodatek za delovno dobo
Title: Autonomous Work Payment Arrangement Today and Tomorrow - The Employer’s Perspective
Abstract: Remuneration for work is an essential element of an employment relationship. How much the parties - the worker and the employer - are free when arranging the payment for work in the employment contract is an issue that is very relevant in practice. Not all is left to their will; when determining pay for work, a number of regulations that limit freedom of collusion must be taken into account. The remuneration for work should be understood as compensation for performing a job, since it is essential on the part of the worker to fulfil the basic obligation from the concluded contract, which is work. The elements of pay for work are the subject of an agreement between the social partners, and these agreements have a significant effect on the development of the wage system in practice. Collective labour contracts are thus a good indication of the diversity of the regulation of pay for work, in which, in addition to the upgrade of legal rights, additional components of pay for work are also determined.
Keywords: remuneration for work, salary, basic salary, additional payments, benefits from employment relationships, salary compensation, social dialogue, collective agreement, manager, executive, seniority bonus

Biserka Kogej Dmitrovič

Povzetek: V prispevku je predstavljena novejša sodna praksa s področja plačila za delo. Ker gre za spore z denarnim zahtevkom, v katerih je bila revizija dovoljena nad zneskom 40.000 evrov, pri nižjih zneskih pa jo je moralo vrhovno sodišče dopustiti, je sodne prakse vrhovnega sodišča manj in prevladuje sodna praksa višjega sodišča. Predstavljene so odločbe o vprašanjih zapadlosti plače in s tem povezanim vprašanjem plačilnega dne in zastaranja, odločbe v zvezi s pobotom plače, višino plače, dogovorjeno plačo in znižano plačo, odločbe o dodatku za delovno dobo, plačilu za dan praznika, plačilu v primeru neupravičene odsotnosti z dela in nadomestilu plače, odločbe v zvezi z različnimi vrstami odpravnin in odločba vrhovnega sodišča, s katero je spremenilo sodno prakso v zvezi z odločanjem o plačilu davkov in prispevkov od zneskov, dosojenih v delovnih sporih.
Ključne besede: plača, nadomestilo plače, pobotanje plače, zapadlost plače, nadurno delo, dodatek za delovno dobo, odpravnina, plačilo davkov in prispevkov
Title: Selected Case Law on Remuneration for Work
Abstract: The article presents the recent case law on remuneration for work. As it deals with disputes related to monetary claims, where a review is allowed for amounts of over 40,000 euros or below this sum if approved by the Supreme Court, case law of the latter is scarce, while the case law of higher courts is more extensive. The article examines decisions on question of maturity of salary and related payday and statute of limitation, decisions on salary offsets, amount of salary, agreed-upon salary and reduced salary, decisions on seniority-based pay increments, payment for holidays, payments in the event of unjustified absence from work and salary compensation, decisions related to various types of severance pays, and the decision of the higher court that changed the case law regarding decisions on payments of taxes and contributions from amounts awarded in labour disputes.
Keywords: salary, salary compensation, salary offset, maturity of salary, overtime work, seniority-based pay increment, severance pay, payment of taxes and contributions

Referendumski spor: stare dileme in nove rešitve

Jadranka Sovdat

Povzetek: Pravica do glasovanja na referendumu se varuje v posebnem postopku, ki se mu reče referendumski spor. Sodnik je zadnji varuh pravnosti referenduma. Njegov izid mora biti verodostojen odraz svobodno izražene volje glasovalcev. V prispevku so predstavljeni pogledi slovenske ustavnopravne teorije na referendumski spor in stališča ustavnega sodišča iz odločbe U-I-191/17. Z njihovo primerjavo so opredeljene novosti v stališčih o referendumskem sporu in oblikovani nasveti za njegovo bodočo zakonsko ureditev.
Ključne besede: zakonodajni referendum, pravica glasovanja na referendumu, referendumski spor, ustavno sodišče
Title: Is There Something New Regarding the Referendum Dispute from the Constitutional Law Perspective
Abstract: The right to vote in a referendum is protected in a special judicial procedure referred to as the referendum dispute. A judge is the ultimate guardian of the lawfulness of a referendum. The result thereof should be an accurate reflection of the freely expressed will of the voters. The article presents the views of the Slovene constitutional law theory on the referendum dispute and the positions of the Constitutional Court adopted in Decision N° U-I-191/17. By comparing these views and positions, it formulates new positions as to the referendum dispute and provides advice regarding the future legislative regulation thereof.
Keywords: legislative referendum, right to vote in a referendum, referendum dispute, constitutional court

Igor Kaučič

Povzetek: Po spremembi Ustave leta 2013, s katero je bila odpravljena določba 90. člena o vezanosti Državnega zbora na odločitev volivcev na zakonodajnem referendumu, je taka ustavna zapoved določena le še za referendum o mednarodnih povezavah. Na zakonski ravni je to vprašanje urejeno tudi za druge vrste referendumov na državni in lokalni ravni, vendar se razlikuje ne samo glede ustavne podlage, temveč tudi glede vsebine in razsežnosti te vezanosti. Pri tem še zlasti izstopa ureditev tega vprašanja za zakonodajni referendum. Ker Zakon o referendumu in o ljudski iniciativi tudi po petih letih še ni usklajen s spremembo Ustave, se zastavlja vprašanje ustavne skladnosti njegovih določb o enoletni prepovedi sprejetja zakona, ki bi bil vsebinsko v nasprotju z odločitvijo volivcev, in posledično sporov, ki lahko v zvezi s tem nastanejo. Vezanost zakonodajalca lahko določi samo Ustava, zato je z ustavnopravnega vidika vprašljivo, ali lahko zakon določi, kako in koliko časa naj bo Državni zbor vezan na referendumski izid. Taka vezanost namreč Državni zbor omejuje pri izvrševanju njegove temeljne ustavno določene zakonodajne funkcije. Če zakon ohrani enoletni suspenzivni rok, bi zakon, ki bi bil sprejet v nasprotju s tako prepovedjo, lahko presojalo Ustavno sodišče z vidika njegove procesne ustavnosti. Ne glede na pravila o vezanosti pa je treba upoštevati, da Državni zbor ni vezan na referendumsko odločitev, če bi ta povzročila protiustavno stanje. V tem primeru je dolžan odpraviti protiustavnost zakona, ki jo je ugotovilo Ustavno sodišče, ne glede na odločitev volivcev na referendumu.
Ključne besede: zakonodajni referendum, referendumska odločitev, vezanost Državnega zbora, prepoved sprejetja zakona, suspenzivni rok, ustavnosodna presoja referenduma, formalna protiustavnost zakona
Title: Dispute over the Binding Nature of a Referendum Decision
Abstract: After the 2013 constitutional amendment, which removed the provision on the binding nature of the voters' decision in a legislative referendum for the National Assembly from Article 90, this constitutional rule only remains valid for the referendum on international associations. On a legislative level, this question is regulated for other state and local referendums; however, the rule differs not only by its constitutional basis, but also by substance and extent. The regulation of the question in relation to legislative referendum is especially out-standing. Since the Referendum and Popular Initiative Act still, after five years, has not been modified in line with the constitutional amendment, the question of the constitutionality of the law's provisions on a one-year prohibition on adoption of a law in contradiction with the voters' decision, and potential following conflicts, arises. Only the Constitution can bind the legislator; therefore, it is questionable from a constitutional law point of view if a legislative act may stipulate how and for how long the outcome of a referendum should bind the National Assembly. Such a provision importantly limits the National Assembly in performing its fundamental constitutionally determined legislative function. If the one-year suspensive deadline is retained, a law passed in contradiction with the prohibition could be subject to a formal (procedural) constitutional review by the Constitutional Court. Regardless of the rules on the binding nature of the decision, it has to be taken into account that the National Assembly is not bound by the decision if it would give rise to an unconstitutional situation. In such cases, it has to eliminate the unconstitutionality of the law, as determined by the Constitutional Court, regardless of the voters' referendum decision.
Keywords: legislative referendum, referendum decision, binding of the National Assembly, prohibition of adoption of laws, suspensive deadline, constitutional review of referendum, formal unconstitutionality of a law

Prihajajoče spremembe nepravdnih in izvršilnega postopka

Marija Škof, Matej Zenz

Povzetek: V prispevku je predstavljena avstrijska ureditev v zvezi z navajanjem novih dejstev in dokazov ter njihovo prekluzijo v nepravdnem postopku. Temelj avstrijskega nepravdnega postopka je preiskovalno načelo, na podlagi katerega ima sodišče dolžnost, da primer razišče in preuči po lastni presoji ter ne odloča le na podlagi dejstev in dokazov, ki jih predložijo in zatrjujejo stranke. Prekluzija je s tem načelom v nasprotju, vendar je namenjena ekonomičnosti in pospešitvi postopka. Članek se osredotoča na dve prekluzijski določili, namreč prekluzijo zaradi zamude procesnih dejanj ter prekluzijo dokazov in dejstev, ki jih stranka navaja prepozno z namenom, da bi zavlekla postopek. Obe določbi sta predstavljeni v luči preiskovalnega načela in v primerjavi s slovensko ureditvijo. Čeprav prekluzijo avstrijski Zakon o nepravdnem postopku iz leta 2003 predvideva, je njena uporaba v presoji sodišča in zaradi posebnosti postopkov, ki spadajo na področje nepravdnega postopka, prej izjema kot pravilo.
Ključne besede: Avstrija, procesno pravo, nepravdni postopek, preiskovalno načelo, prekluzija, zamuda
Title: Submission of New Facts and Evidence and Preclusion in Non-Contentious Proceedings in Austria
Abstract: This article provides an overview of the Austrian provisions regarding new facts and evidence as well as preclusion in non-contentious proceedings. The underlying principle of a non-contentious proceeding is the investigation principle, which establishes the duty of the court to research the case and study it at its own discretion. The court does not decide just by the facts and the evidence submitted and affirmed by the parties. The preclusion of evidence contradicts this principle, but has financial benefits and also shortens the proceeding. The article focuses on two preclusion provisions in Austrian non-contentious proceedings, namely preclusion due to a delay of procedural acts and the preclusion of facts and evidence, which parties delay bringing up with the purpose of delaying the proceeding. Both provisions will be dealt with in light of the investigation principle and in comparison with Slovene regulation. Although the Austrian non-contentious proceedings act provides for preclusion, its applicability is at the sole discretion of the court. Due to the specific subjects to which the non-contentious proceeding is applicable, the use of the provisions on preclusion remains an exception and not a rule.
Keywords: Austria, procedural law, non-contentious proceeding, investigation principle, preclusion, delay

Referendumski spor: stare dileme in nove rešitve

Bruna Žuber

Povzetek: S spremembo 90. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije referendum ni več dopusten za štiri skupine zakonov. Poleg teh zakonov zaradi varstva pomembnih ustavnih vrednot ni izključena presoja dopustnosti referenduma tudi o drugih zakonih. Avtorica obravnava nekatera odprta vprašanja presoje dopustnosti referenduma o zakonih, ki jih 90. člen Ustave ne predvideva. Mogoče je domnevati, da bo Ustavno sodišče takšno presojo opravljalo in se pri tem opiralo na doktrino o prepovedi referenduma, ki jo je izoblikovalo v sistemu potrditvenega zakonodajnega referenduma.
Ključne besede: zakonodajni referendum, dopustnost referenduma, ustavnosodna presoja referenduma, varstvo ustavnih vrednot, protiustavne posledice, tehtanje ustavnih vrednot, ustavna demokracija, doktrina o prepovedi referenduma
Title: Review of Permissibility to Prohibit a Referendum on Certain Laws
Abstract: After the amendment of Article 90 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, it is no longer permissible to call the legislative referendum for four groups of laws. Furthermore, due to protection of important constitutional principles and values, a constitutional review of permissibility to call a referendum on other laws is not excluded. The author discusses some open questions on the permissibility of referendum about laws which are not provided in Article 90 of the Constitution. One could assume that the Constitutional Court will perform constitutional review of permissibility to call a referendum on such laws, and that it will follow its settled case law and criteria set thereby in the system of confirmative legislative referendum.
Keywords: legislative referendum, permissibility of referendum, constitutional review of referendum, the protection of constitutional principles and values, constitutional democracy, balancing of constitutional values, the doctrine on prohibition of referendum

Prihajajoče spremembe nepravdnih in izvršilnega postopka

Vesna Rijavec, Tjaša Ivanc

Povzetek: Zaradi potrebe po uskladitvi postopkovnih pravil za nepravdne postopke z novimi konceptualnimi rešitvami iz Družinskega zakonika (DZ) na področju urejanja družinskih razmerij je nujno sprejeti novi Zakon o nepravdnem postopku (ZNP-1). Analiza primerjalnopravnih zgledov pokaže, da je družinske zadeve treba reševati čim bolj celovito in enotno, kar bolj prilagodljiva in manj formalna pravila nepravdnega postopka tudi omogočajo. V prispevku so obravnavane potrebne procesne prilagoditve temeljnih načel in splošnih določb nepravdnega postopka. Oporo za nekatere argumente daje prikaz nemške in avstrijske ureditve, ki sta s slovensko najbolj primerljivi tudi zato, ker v obeh pravnih redih družinske zadeve rešujejo v nepravdnem postopku. Obravnavani sta tudi ureditvi nepravdnih postopkov v Italiji in Franciji, ki se uvrščata v krog držav s pravnim redom, kjer imajo podlago za urejanje materije nepravdnih postopkov v civilnih procesnih zakonikih.
Ključne besede: nepravdni postopek, družinska zadeva, pravdni postopek, razmejitev, pojem nepravdnega postopka, primerjalnopravni sistem nepravdnih postopkov, temeljna načela
Title: Comparative Overview of Non-Contentious Procedures in Family Matters from a Developmental Perspective
Abstract: Due to the need to harmonise procedural rules of non-contentious proceedings with the new conceptual solutions of the Family Code in the area of family relationships, the adoption of the new Act on Non-Contentious Civil Proceeding is necessary. The analysis of comparative legal examples shows that family matters need to be tackled as fully and uniformly as possible, which the non-contentious rules with more flexible and less formal nature certainly enable. The article discusses the necessary procedural adjustments of the fundamental principles and general provisions of the non-contentious procedure. Arguments are based on an overview of the German and Austrian rules, which are most comparable to the Slovenian system because family matters are decided in a non-contentious proceeding in both jurisdictions. The authors further discusses the regulation of non-litigious proceedings in Italy and France, which fall into the group of regulations that provide the basis for regulating non-contentious matters in civil procedural codes.
Keywords: non-contentious civil procedure, family matter, litigation, delimitation, the concept of non-contentious procedure, comparative systems of non-contentious proceedings, fundamental principles

Novosti in prihodnji pravni izzivi pokojninskega zavarovanja v Sloveniji

Andraž Rangus

Povzetek: Demografske spremembe in digitalizacija bodo v prihodnosti velik izziv za sisteme socialne varnosti po vsej Evropi. Starajoča se družba ter družbene spremembe in spremembe na trgu dela zaradi uvajanja novih tehnologij bodo zahtevale prilagoditev današnjih sistemov socialnih zavarovanj, predvsem pa sistemov pokojninskega zavarovanja. Slovenija, kjer je staranje prebivalstva še toliko bolj izrazito, bo morala temeljito premisliti delovanje obstoječega sistema pokojninskega zavarovanja, da se zagotovi tako njegovo temeljno poslanstvo, tj. omogočanje ustreznega dohodka vsem generacijam, kot tudi njegova dolgoročna vzdržnost. Razprava o spremembi pokojninskega sistema se je v Sloveniji začela že leta 2016 s pripravo Bele knjige o pokojninah, zaključek te razprave pa je dokument, sprejet na Ekonomsko-socialnem svetu, s katerim so socialni partnerji dosegli dogovor o ključnih usmeritvah prihodnjih zakonodajnih sprememb na področju pokojninskega in invalidskega zavarovanja. Zakonodajalec ima tako pripravljene vse podlage za sprejem novega zakona, ki bo celovito uredil področje pokojninskega in invalidskega zavarovanja ter to obliko socialnega zavarovanja prilagodil novim družbenoekonomskim razmeram.
Ključne besede: demografija, digitalizacija, sistemi socialne varnosti, spremembe pokojninskega in invalidskega zavarovanja
Title: The Future of the Slovenian Pension System
Abstract: The future demographic changes and digitalisation present a major challenge for social security systems across Europe. An aging society, societal changes and changes in the labour market due to new technologies will require adjustment of today's social insurance systems, and especially the pension insurance systems. Slovenia, where the aging of the population is even more pronounced, will have to thoroughly consider the functioning of the existing pension insurance scheme in the future in order to ensure its basic mission, i.e. ensuring adequate income for all generations, as well as its long-term sustainability. The debate on the changes of the Slovenian pension system already began in 2016 with the preparation of the White Paper on pensions. The conclusion of this debate is manifested in a document adopted by the Economic and Social Council, with which social partners reached an agreement on key guidelines for future legislative changes in the area of pension and disability insurance. The legislator has thus laid the foundations for adopting a new law that will regulate the field of pension and disability insurance, and adapt this form of social insurance to the new socio-economic conditions.
Keywords: demography, digitalisation, social security systems, changes of the pension and disability insurance

Etelka Korpič Horvat

Povzetek: Avtorica v uvodu prispevka navede, da je prihodnji razvoj družbe v prihodnosti odvisen od treh temeljnih dejavnikov: ekonomije, zagotavljanja socialne varnosti ter skrbi za zdravo življenjsko okolje in ohranjanje narave. Gre za razvoj ekonomske (materialne), družbene in okoljske blaginje. Prispevek obravnava razvoj socialne varnosti in varovanja dostojanstva v Republiki Sloveniji kot pomembnega segmenta razvoja družbene blaginje in socialne države. Avtorica prikaže posamezne izbrane odločitve Ustavnega sodišča s področja pravic iz socialne varnosti. Odločitve, ki po njenem mnenju niso prispevale k razvoju socialne države, tudi kritično oceni. Ugotavlja, da je Ustavno sodišče največ odločitev, ki zadevajo socialno varnost, sprejelo na področju pokojninskega zavarovanja, kar je razumljivo, saj je skoraj 30 odstotkov slovenskega prebivalstva upokojencev. Ustava je zakonodajalcu dala pooblastilo, da ureja socialna zavarovanja, na katerih temelji socialna varnost prebivalstva. Zato mora biti Ustavno sodišče pri presojah vsebin teh zavarovanj zadržano. To pa ne pomeni, da ne bdi nad varstvom jedra teh pravic. Če zakonodajalec poseže v bistvo človekove pravice, kar se presoja v vsakem konkretnem primeru posebej, poseže tudi v pravico do človekovega dostojanstva. Dostojanstvo človeka pa je temeljna vrednota, ki pripada vsem ljudem.
Ključne besede: socialna varnost, družba blaginje, ustavno sodišče, socialna država, načelo, človekova pravica, dostojanstvo
Title: Development of Social Security and Protection of Human Dignity in the Decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia
Abstract: In the introduction to this article, the author mentions that the future development of society depends on three fundamental factors: economy, social security, and protection of a healthy living environment and nature conservation. These refer to the development of economic (material), social, and environmental prosperity. The paper discusses the development of social security and protection of human dignity in the Republic of Slovenia as an important segment of the development of social prosperity and social state. The author presents a number of selected Constitutional Court decisions on the topics of social security rights. The author provides a critical review of those decisions that, in her opinion, have not contributed to the development of a social state. The author establishes that the Constitutional Court adopted a majority of cases in social security matters in the field of pension insurance, a consequence of the fact that almost 30 percent of the Slovene population is retired. The Constitution authorises the legislature to regulate the social security insurances underlying the social security of the population. For these reasons, the Constitutional Court must be reserved when reviewing such insurances. This, however, does not signify that the Constitutional Court does not keep watch over the core of such rights. If the legislature interferes with the essence of a human right, as is determined on a case-by-case basis, it also interferes with the right to human dignity. Human dignity, however, is a fundamental value that inherently belongs to every human being.
Keywords: social security, welfare society, constitutional court, social state, principle, human right, dignity

Prihajajoče spremembe nepravdnih in izvršilnega postopka

Dunja Jadek Pensa

Povzetek: Prispevek je razčlenjen v dva sklopa. V prvem delu poskuša sumarno orisati pomen poštenosti sodnega postopka za udejanjanje vladavine prava in izgrajevanje zaupanja v sodno vejo oblasti. V drugem delu povzema iz izbranih odločb Ustavnega sodišča, ki se nanašajo na nekatere dileme izvršilnega in nepravdnega postopka. Ideja je približati bralcu ustavnopravno razsežnost s posebnim poudarkom na področju izvršilnih in nepravdnih postopkov, pa tudi osnovne značilnosti razreševanja ustavnopravnih dilem.
Ključne besede: načelo pravne države, poštenost postopka, odvzem svobode, obrazložena sodna odločba, zloraba izvršbe, izvršba zaradi zagotovitve stikov z otroki, začasni zastopnik pri izvršbi na stanovanje, odvzem svobode
Title: Constitutional Adjudication in Enforcement and Non-Litigious Civil Proceedings
Abstract: This article is composed of two parts. The first part briefly outlines the importance of a fair trial for implementing the rule of law and supporting the confidence in judiciary. The second part summarises some of the decisions of the Constitutional Court concerning certain dilemmas of enforcement and non-litigious civil proceedings. The idea is to present a constitutional dimension of these dilemmas and basic characteristics of the rule-governed decision-making when a constitutional issue is raised.
Keywords: the principle of the rule of law, fair trial, deprivation of liberty, reasoning of a judgement, abuse of civil enforcement proceedings, enforcement of child arrangements order, provisional representation when selling an apartment in the procedure of execution

Novosti in prihodnji pravni izzivi pokojninskega zavarovanja v Sloveniji

Peter Pogačar

Povzetek: Spremembe v delovnih okoljih so vse hitrejše in globlje. Nove tehnologije v celoti spreminjajo tako načine, kako živimo in delamo, kot tudi načine, kako razmišljamo ter dojemamo sebe in svet okoli nas. Na te spremembe danes vpliva niz dejavnikov, med katerimi so najpomembnejši hiter razvoj tehnologij in drugi znanstveni preboji, novi načini organizacije dela, nova delitev dela na globalni ravni in demografske spremembe. Če se trenutno bolj ali manj uspešno spoprijemamo z uporabo in posledicami uporabe (mnogokrat tudi zlorabe) netipičnih oblik dela, pa smo hkrati že priča intenzivnemu razvoju novih oblik dela, ki se po osnovnih parametrih še bolj razlikujejo od do pred kratkim splošno uveljavljenega in prevladujočega tipa zaposlitve, to je pogodbe o zaposlitvi za nedoločen čas s polnim delovnim časom. Čim hitreje bo torej treba ugotoviti, kakšne bodo posledice novih oblik opravljanja dela (predvsem v smislu pravne, socialne in ekonomske varnosti tistih, ki opravljajo delo), ter se na to ustrezno odzvati. Močna rast netipičnih oblik zaposlovanja, ki jih prinaša digitalizacija, pomeni, da vse večji delež delovne sile ne prispeva v uveljavljene sisteme socialne varnosti in jih tudi ne koristi, na primer zavarovanje za primer brezposelnosti ter zdravstveno in pokojninsko zavarovanje. Klasična pogodba o zaposlitvi bo ostala in mora ostati prevladujoča oblika na trgu dela, vendar moramo sprejeti dejstvo, da novih načinov dela preprosto ne moremo preprečiti in da to niti ne bi bilo smiselno, ampak moramo zagotoviti, da bodo posamezniki, ki opravljajo takšno delo, imeli zagotovljeno ekonomsko, pravno in socialno varnost.
Ključne besede: prihodnost dela, nove oblike dela, digitalizacija, ekonomska, pravna in socialna varnost, dostojno delo
Title: Providing Economic, Legal and Social Security to Workers in New Forms of Work and Atypical Forms of Employment
Abstract: Working environment is nowadays influenced by many factors, among which the most important are: fast developments of new technologies, digitalisation, new ways of work organisation and demographic changes... The article analyses the influence of digitalisation on the future of working environment and workers, as well as the influence of new forms of work from the perspective of legal, economic and social security of the persons performing new forms of work. Digitalisation and new forms of work can definitely result in a positive effect, but the task of policy makers should be on preventing the risks for decent work.
Keywords: future of work, new forms of work, digitalisation, economic, legal and social protection, decent work

Marijan Papež

Povzetek: Pravica do pokojnine je v Republiki Sloveniji opredeljena kot ena temeljnih pravic do socialne varnosti. Temelji na določbah Ustave RS, ki v 50. členu določa, da imajo državljani "pod pogoji, določenimi z zakonom, pravico do socialne varnosti, vključno s pravico do pokojnine". V tem členu je določena narava slovenskega pokojninskega sistema, ki je eden izmed ključnih elementov socialne države. Pomembna lastnost pokojnine je, da gre za pravico dolgotrajne narave, saj pretežnemu delu upravičencev zagotavlja edini vir dohodka za preživljanje v starosti. Obvezno zavarovanje financirajo zavarovanci, delodajalci in Republika Slovenija, financira pa se tudi iz demografskega rezervnega sklada in drugih virov, določenih v Zakonu o pokojninskem in invalidskem zavarovanju (ZPIZ-2), ki je bil sprejet decembra 2012 in se uporablja od 1. januarja 2013. V samostojni Sloveniji so bile v letih 1992, 2000 in 2013 uveljavljene tri zelo zahtevne sistemske pokojninske reforme ter številne druge zakonske spremembe. O potrebnosti reforme pokojninskega in invalidskega zavarovanja, ki je bila uveljavljena 1. januarja 2013, in ciljih, ki jih je treba doseči, med socialnimi partnerji ni bilo bistvenih razhajanj. Zelo pomembno je, da je prišlo do reforme obstoječega sistema, ki temelji na medgeneracijski solidarnosti in je s prilagoditvami uspešno preživel tako gospodarske krize kot vojne. Tudi v prihodnje ga bo treba s pravočasnimi manjšimi ali večjimi spremembami in dopolnitvami prilagajati ter s tem zagotavljati dolgoročno finančno stabilnost in dostojne pokojnine, kar sta bila glavna cilja te reforme. Uveljavitev reforme sistema pokojninskega in invalidskega zavarovanja z ZPIZ-2, ki je dokaj radikalna in daje pozitivne rezultate, je korak v pravo smer. Za stabilnost sistema in celotne države pa so poleg drugih reform odločilni predvsem gospodarska rast, nova delovna mesta, stabilen bančni sistem in finančna disciplina. Pravice iz obveznega zavarovanja se uveljavljajo pri Zavodu za pokojninsko in invalidsko zavarovanje Slovenije po zakonu, ki ureja splošni upravni postopek, če ni z ZPIZ-2 določeno drugače.
Ključne besede: pokojninsko in invalidsko zavarovanje, obvezno zavarovanje, pravica do pokojnine, reforma sistema, medgeneracijska solidarnost, finančna stabilnost, dostojne pokojnine, uveljavljanje pravic
Title: New Developments in the Pension Insurance and the Procedure for the Enforcement and Protection of Rights under the Pension and Disability Insurance Scheme
Abstract: In the Republic of Slovenia, the right to a pension is defined as one of the fundamental rights to social security. It is based on the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, with Article 50 providing that citizens "have the right to social security, including the right to a pension, under conditions provided by law." Thus it defines the nature of the Slovenian pension scheme, which constitutes one of the key elements of a welfare state. An important feature of a pension is their long-term nature, since for the majority of beneficiaries it is the only source of income in their old age. Compulsory insurance is financed by insured persons, employers and the Republic of Slovenia, as well as by the Demographic Reserve Fund and other sources set out in the Pension and Disability Insurance Act - 2 (ZPIZ-2). In 1992, 2000 and 2013, following Slovenia's independence, three extremely complex systemic pension reforms, as well as a number of other legal changes, were implemented. There had been no substantial divergences between social partners either on the need for reform of the pension and disability insurance scheme, which took effect on 1 January 2013, or on the objectives to be achieved. It is very important that a reform of the existent scheme based on inter-generational solidarity was carried out, which has managed, with adjustments, to overcome economic crises and wars. In the future, further timely minor or major changes and amendments will have to be introduced to secure long-term financial stability and decent pensions - the 2013 reform's two main objectives. The implementation of this rather radical reform of the pension and disability insurance scheme, ZPIZ-2, which has shown to deliver positive results, has proven to be a step in the right direction. However, to ensure the stability of the pension scheme and the whole country, economic growth, new jobs, a stable banking system and financial discipline are required in addition to other reforms. Unless stipulated otherwise under ZPIZ-2, claims under the compulsory insurance scheme need to be submitted to the Pension and Disability Insurance Institute of Slovenia as prescribed by the law governing the general administrative procedure.
Keywords: pension and disability insurance, compulsory insurance, right to a pension, system reform, inter-generational solidarity, financial stability, decent pensions, enforcing rights

Vpliv nove družinske zakonodaje na premoženjskopravna razmerja

Viktorija Žnidaršič Skubic

Povzetek: Pogodba o ureditvi premoženjskopravnih razmerij med zakoncema je novost slovenskega družinskega prava, ki jo je prinesel sprejem Družinskega zakonika. V prispevku avtorica analizira nekatera vprašanja, ki se bodo ob uvedbi instituta oziroma ob njegovi uporabi v praksi nedvomno pojavljala. Na začetku opozori na problematiko poimenovanja instituta, ki po njenem mnenju ni ustrezno, zato uporablja stari, uveljavljeni izraz ženitna pogodba. V nadaljevanju analizira pravne vidike posameznih problemskih sklopov, kot so na primer vprašanja, ki zadevajo subjekte ženitne pogodbe, časovni vidik sklepanja in učinkovanja te pogodbe ter vprašanja njene vsebine. Avtorica prispevek zaključi z ugotovitvijo, da je bila uvedba avtonomije na področju premoženjskih razmerij med zakoncema nujna in je kot takšna dobrodošla, hkrati pa tudi opozarja, da se je Pandorina skrinjica križev in težav pri presoji premoženjskih razmerij med zakoncema na ta način zdaj šele zares odprla.
Ključne besede: pogodba o ureditvi premoženjskopravnih razmerij med zakoncema, ženitna pogodba, premoženjski režim med zakoncema, premoženjska razmerja med zakoncema, zakonska zveza, zunajzakonska skupnost, partnerska zveza, nesklenjena partnerska zveza
Title: Marriage Contract
Abstract: The agreement on the regulation of property relations between spouses (marriage contract) is a novelty of Slovene family law, which was brought about by the adoption of the Family Code. In the paper, the author analyses some of the open questions that will undoubtedly appear upon introduction of the institute or upon use in practice. Initially, the author draws attention to the issue of the institution name, which, in her opinion, is inappropriate; therefore, in the article, the author uses the old and established term: marriage contract. The author continues with an analysis of the legal aspects of specific problems on the matter, such as questions regarding subjects of a marriage contract, the time aspect of concluding a contract and its effectiveness and the issue of its content. The author finishes the paper with the conclusion that introduction of autonomy into a sphere of property relations between spouses was necessary and should be welcomed as such, while also pointing out that the Pandora's box of difficulties in assessing the property relations between spouses has only really been opened.
Keywords: agreement on the regulation of property relations between spouses, marriage contract, marital property regime, property relations between spouses, marriage, cohabitation, civil union, informal (unregistered) civil union

Vsebina

Vpliv nove družinske zakonodaje na premoženjskopravna razmerja stran 917 Viktorija Žnidaršič Skubic Pogodba o ureditvi premoženjskopravnih razmerij med zakoncema Marriage Contract Vpliv nove družinske zakonodaje na premoženjskopravna razme

Vpliv nove družinske zakonodaje na premoženjskopravna razmerja

Nataša Erjavec

Povzetek: Reforma družinskega prava prinaša pomembne novosti in spremembe na področju urejanja premoženjskih razmerij med zakoncema, tako v času trajanja zakonske zveze kot v primerih prenehanja, bodisi zaradi razveze bodisi zaradi zakončeve smrti. Med pravnimi posli, ki jih v času trajanja zakonske zveze zakonca sklepata med seboj, so pogoste darilne pogodbe, zato so v prispevku podrobneje predstavljene, zlasti običajna manjša darila. Pomembna novost je možnost sklepanja pogodb o premoženjskih razmerjih, s katerimi se lahko izključi in spremeni zakoniti premoženjski režim. Tako kot vsi pravni posli med zakoncema mora biti tudi pogodba o ureditvi premoženjskih razmerij sklenjena v obliki notarskega zapisa. Vloga notarja na področju družinskega prava se krepi, parom nepristransko pravno svetuje in preverja, ali sta oba in v celoti razumela vse s sklenjenim poslom povezane pravne posledice ter ali vsebina pogodbe o ureditvi premoženjskih razmerij ne nasprotuje ustavi, prisilnim predpisom ali moralnim načelom. Na novo bo uveden register pogodb o ureditvi premoženjskopravnih razmerij, ki se bo vodil pri Notarski zbornici Slovenije. Na področju razveze zakonske zveze je pomembna novost tudi možnost sporazumne razveze pred notarjem. Zasebno razvezo brez sodišča zakonodajalec omogoča zakoncema, ki nimata skupnih mladoletnih otrok ter se pred notarjem sporazumeta tudi o delitvi skupnega premoženja, o tem, kdo od njiju bo (p)ostal najemnik stanovanja po razvezi, in o preživljanju nepreskrbljenega zakonca. Vse to bo lahko imelo posledice v primeru smrti enega od zakoncev. Četudi le v zelo omejenem obsegu, bo vpliv nove ureditve segel tudi na področje načrtovanja zapuščine zakoncev.
Ključne besede: notar, zakonca, darilna pogodba, pogodba o ureditvi premoženjskih razmerij, razveza zakonske zveze, sporazumna razveza pred notarjem, smrt zakonca
Title: Love on Paper - The Role of a Notary in Arranging Property Relations of Spouses
Abstract: A reform of family law brings about important novelties and changes in the field of marital property agreements, either during the course of marriage, in the event of a divorce or death of a spouse. As deeds of gift are frequent among legal transactions concluded between spouses during a marriage, the article discussed them in detail, particularly ordinary small gifts. An important novelty is the possibility of a conclusion of marital property agreements, by which spouses may exclude and change the legal property regime. Just like any other legal transaction between spouses, a marital property agreement is concluded in the form of a notarial deed. The role of a notary in the field of a family law is growing. Before concluding a marital property agreement, a notary shall give spouses impartial advice and make sure that they both fully understand the meaning and legal consequences of a marital property agreement they wish to conclude; the notary shall likewise make sure that the content of the agreement is not in contravention of the Constitution, mandatory regulations and moral principles. A new register of marital property agreements is being introduced, maintained by the Chamber of Notaries of Slovenia. As regards divorce, there is yet another important novelty - the possibility of a consensual divorce before a notary. This private divorce without involvement of a court enables spouses without joint underage children to conclude an agreement on the division of co-owned property, which of them remains or becomes a tenant after the divorce, and maintenance of the dependent spouse. All these could have consequences in the event of a death of one of the spouses. Albeit on a very limited scale, this new regime will have an impact on the field of planning the succession of spouses.
Keywords: notary, spouses, deed of gift, marital property agreement, divorce, consensual divorce before a notary, death of a spouse

Claudia Rudolf

Povzetek: Uredba 2016/1103 se uporablja za premoženjska razmerja med zakoncema s čezmejnim elementom. Vsebuje harmonizirana kolizijska pravila ter pravila o pristojnosti, priznanju, izvršljivosti in izvrševanju odločb, o javni listini in sodni poravnavi. Zakonca lahko med nacionalnimi pravnimi ureditvami, s katerimi sta tesno povezana zaradi običajnega prebivališča ali državljanstva, izbereta pravo, ki naj se uporablja. Če pravo ni bilo izbrano, se določi na podlagi lestvice naveznih okoliščin.
Ključne besede: Uredba Sveta (EU) 2016/1103, premoženjska razmerja med zakoncema, izbira prava, ki se uporablja, pravo, ki se uporablja, če stranki ne izbereta prava, učinki za tretje osebe
Title: Conflict-of-Law Rules on Matrimonial Property Regimes
Abstract: Regulation 2016/1103 shall apply to matrimonial property regimes and comprises harmonised conflict-of-law rules, rules on jurisdiction, recognition, enforceability and enforcement of decisions, authentic instruments and court settlements. The spouses can choose the law applicable to their matrimonial property regime among the laws with which they have close links because of habitual residence or their nationality. In the absence of a choice of law, the applicable law is determined on the basis of a scale of connecting factors.
Keywords: Council Regulation (EU) 2016/1103, matrimonial property regimes, choice of applicable law, applicable law in the absence of choice by the parties, effects in respect of third parties

Pravni izzivi sodelovalnega gospodarstva v digitalni dobi

Nana Šumrada Slavnić

Povzetek: Prispevek predstavlja trenutno zakonodajno delo EU na področju obdavčenja digitalne ekonomije in rešitve, ki so jih številne države članice sprejele glede obdavčitve delitvene ekonomije. Trenutno obstajajo na eni strani načrti za skupno rešitev EU pri obdavčitvi digitalne ekonomije, nasprotno pa številne rešitve glede obdavčenja delitvene ekonomije na ravni držav članic.
Ključne besede: obdavčitev digitalne ekonomije, obdavčitev delitvene ekonomije, davek od dohodkov pravnih oseb v EU
Title: Taxation of Sharing and Digital Economy: Taxation Models for Innovative Landscape
Abstract: This article presents the current legislative work of the EU in the field of digital economy taxation and solutions adopted by a number of EU Member States as to the sharing economy taxation. Currently, there are plans for a common EU solution for digital economy taxation and a variety of solutions regarding sharing economy taxation at the level of Member States.
Keywords: digital economy taxation, sharing economy taxation, corporate taxation in EU

Vpliv nove družinske zakonodaje na premoženjskopravna razmerja

Suzana Kraljić

Povzetek: Novi Družinski zakonik prinaša številne novosti. Skrbništvo za odrasle osebe je deležno ene pomembnejših, saj ni več vezano na odvzem poslovne sposobnosti, ki sta ga še posebej Konvencija o pravicah invalidov in praksa Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice opredelili kot grob poseg v človekove pravice in s tem razvrednotenje osebe. Odrasli osebi, ki ni sposobna skrbeti zase ter za svoje pravice in koristi in ki je postavljena pod skrbništvo, je treba zagotoviti vso potrebno pomoč na vseh področjih njenega življenja. Skrb za varovančevo premoženje je pri tem ključnega pomena, saj varovancu lahko zagotavlja tudi ekonomsko varnost.
Ključne besede: poslovna sposobnost, popis premoženja, želje varovanca, dovoljenje centra za socialno delo, malomarnost
Title: Guardianship for Adults and Care for Ward’s Property
Abstract: The new Family Code brings many novelties. Guardianship for adults is subject to one of the most important novelties because it no longer depends on the deprivation of the capacity to contract. The latter is determined, especially by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the practice of the European Court of Human Rights, as a gross interference in human rights and thus the devaluation of a person. Adults who are not able to take care of themselves, for their rights and entitlements, and are placed under guardianship, need to be provided with all the necessary assistance in all areas of their life. Care for property of a ward is of crucial importance, since it can also provide economic safety for the client.
Keywords: capacity to contract, inventory of property, wishes of a ward, permission of the Centre for Social Work, negligence

Pravni izzivi sodelovalnega gospodarstva v digitalni dobi

Janja Hojnik

Povzetek: Prispevek na kratko opiše različne oblike poslovnih modelov, ki jih uvrščamo pod koncepta sodelovalnega gospodarstva in delitvene ekonomije, nekatere poskuse opredelitve in razmejitve med njimi ter najbolj izpostavljena področja pravnih izzivov, povezanih s temi novimi poslovnimi modeli. Poudarjeno je, da so poslovni modeli delitvene ekonomije in sodelovalnega gospodarstva izziv za celo vrsto pravnih področij. Avtorica poudarja, da tako kot že leta ne moremo biti več zaprti samo v nacionalni pravni red, brez upoštevanja globalizacije, se v prihodnje ne bomo več mogli izogniti vplivu digitalizacije na pravo. Sodišče EU je v zadnjih mesecih že sprejelo odločitev v dveh zahtevah za predhodno odločanje o statusu Uberja po pravu EU, veliko več postopkov zoper to podjetje pa kot odziv na bes tradicionalnih taksističnih družb poteka pred različnimi forumi držav članic. Svetovni splet odpira zahtevna vprašanja, povezana z varstvom osebnih podatkov, varstvom potrošnikov, statusom delavca, davčnimi obvezami ipd. Avtorica sklene, da čeprav lahko za številna vprašanja uporabimo že obstoječa pravila, bomo za nekatera potrebovali hitro odzivno zakonodajo in sodišča, ki bodo razumela posebnosti novih poslovnih modelov.
Ključne besede: platformna ekonomija, Uber, Airbnb, evropska agenda, subsidiarnost, Sodišče EU, poštena konkurenca, trajnostni razvoj
Title: Collaborative and Sharing Economy: Concepts and a Need for a European Approach
Abstract: The paper briefly examines different forms of business models that are premised under the concept of collaborative economy and sharing economy, some endeavours to define and differentiate them, as well as the most exposed areas of legal challenges associated with these new business models. It is pointed out that the business models of sharing and collaborative economy challenge a whole range of areas of law. The author highlights that just as we can no longer be confined only in the national legal order, not taking into account globalisation, in the future we will no longer be able to avoid the impact of digitisation on the law. The EU Court of Justice has in recent months adopted judgments in two requests for a preliminary ruling on the status of Uber under EU law, and many other procedures against this company take place before different forums in Member States as a response to the fury of traditional taxi companies. The Internet raises challenging issues related to the protection of personal data, consumer protection, status of workers, duty to pay taxes etc. The author concludes that, although existing rules already apply to a number of questions, others require a quick and responsive legislation and courts with an understanding of the peculiarities of new business models.
Keywords: platform economy, Uber, Airbnb, European Agenda, subsidiarity, EU Court, fair competition, sustainable development

Petra Weingerl

Povzetek: Najbolj pereče vprašanje sodelovalnega gospodarstva za pravo varstva potrošnikov je pravna narava razmerij med strankami, ki so vpletene v transakcijo prek spletne platforme. Od določitve pravne narave teh razmerij je odvisno, ali se v določenem primeru uporabi pravo varstva potrošnikov (v razmerjih spletna platforma - kupec, spletna platforma - ponudnik in/ali ponudnik - kupec). V EU se namreč pravila s področja prava varstva potrošnikov uporabljajo kot lex specialis v razmerju do splošnega obligacijskega prava držav članic in pridejo v poštev le v primerih, ko gre za pogodbe, sklenjene med trgovci in potrošniki (B2C). Če pravne narave razmerij ni mogoče jasno določiti, to povzroča negotovost glede pravic in obveznosti oseb, vključenih v poslovanje prek spletnih platform. Prispevek bo osvetlil to problematiko in podal pregled potrošniške zakonodaje, ki jo morajo stranke pri poslovanju prek spletne platforme upoštevati, ko sklepajo pogodbe s potrošniki.
Ključne besede: varstvo potrošnikov, spletne platforme, razmerja B2C, razmerja C2C, ponudnik, potrošnik, storitve informacijske družbe, nepoštene poslovne prakse, pojasnilna dolžnost
Title: Consumer Protection and the Sharing Economy
Abstract: The most pressing issue of the sharing economy for consumer protection is the legal nature of relationships between parties involved in a transaction through an online platform. The application of the consumer protection rules depends on the determination of the legal nature of these relationships (i.e. online platform - buyer, online platform - provider and/or provider - buyer). In the EU, the rules on consumer protection apply as a lex specialis with regard to the general laws of obligations of the Member States, and can only be considered in cases where contracts are concluded between traders and consumers (B2C). If the legal nature of these relationships cannot be clearly defined, this causes uncertainty regarding the rights and obligations of the persons involved in an online platform transaction. The paper highlights this issue and provides an overview of consumer legislation that needs to be observed when contracting with consumers through online platforms.
Keywords: consumer protection, online platforms, B2C relations, C2C relations, provider/supplier, consumer, information society services, unfair business practices, information duties

 
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