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letnik 2019, številka 6-7, 1. 10. 2019
> Kazalo

NA NASLOVNICI

Pogodba o finančnem lizingu

Vesna Kranjc

Povzetek: Poslovna praksa vrsto pogodb imenuje lizinške pogodbe. Nekatere od njih izpolnjujejo pogoje za zakupno (najemno) pogodbo po Obligacijskem zakoniku, po drugi strani pa specifične okoliščine finančni lizing oddaljujejo od zakupa. Prispevek analizira te okoliščine (predmet lizinga, ki ga lizingodajalec kupi zaradi sklenitve lizinške pogodbe, specificira lizingojemalec; lizinško nadomestilo se določi glede na lizingodajalčeve stroške nakupa predmeta). Prispevek pritrjuje stališču, da ima finančni lizing naravo zakupne pogodbe, vendar pa posebne okoliščine pri finančnem lizingu zahtevajo uporabo posebnih pravil. Podaja izhodišča za uporabo pravil pri vprašanjih, ki ne omogočajo podreditve pod zakupno pogodbo.

Ključne besede: pogodba o finančnem lizingu, pravna narava finančnega lizinga, zakupna pogodba s finančnim namenom, prodaja na obroke, Konvencija UNIDROIT o mednarodnem finančnem lizingu

Title: Financial Leasing Contract

Abstract: Business practice uses the term leasing/lease for a number of contracts. Some of them qualify as the lease contract, as is regulated in the Code of Obligations. However, the specific characteristics of financial leasing varies from the lease contract. This article analyses its relevant characteristics - lessor buys goods on specifications made by the lessee, the goods are acquired by the lessor in connection with the lease agreement, the rent is calculated according to the lessor''s cost of purchasing item. The article affirms the view that financial leasing has the nature of a lease, but that specific circumstances on the financial leasing side require the application of specific rules. The article also presents the basis for applying the specific rules to cases that do not allow subordination under a lease contract.

Keywords: financial leasing contract, legal nature of financial lease, lease with financing purpose, credit sale, UNIDROIT Convention on International Financial Leasing

Izzivi delovnega prava v času prekarnega dela

Darja Senčur Peček

Povzetek: V prispevku je obravnavano vprašanje opredelitve pojma prekarnost, v nadaljevanju pa so najbolj pogoste oblike dela v Sloveniji (delovno razmerje za določen čas, študentsko delo, delovno razmerje s krajšim delovnim časom, agencijsko delo ter navidezni samozaposleni in druga prikrita delovna razmerja) analizirane z vidika tveganja za prekarnost. Predstavljeni so tudi možni ukrepi za preprečevanje oziroma odpravljanje prekarnosti, aktualni tudi za slovensko ureditev.

Ključne besede: prekarno delo, nestandardne oblike dela, zaposlitev za določen čas, študentsko delo, zaposlitev za krajši delovni čas, agencijsko delo, navidezni samozaposleni, prikrita delovna razmerja

Title: Challenges of Labour Law in Times of Precarious Work

Abstract: The author initially examines the definition of precarity, and then analyses the most common non-standard forms of employment in Slovenia (fixed-term employment, student work, part- -time employment, temporary agency work, false self-employment and other disguised employment relationships) from the perspective of the risk of precarity. The article is concluded with an explanation of some possible measures for combating precarity in Slovenia.

Keywords: precarious work, non-standard forms of employment, fixed-term, student work, part-time, temporary agency work, false self-employment, disguised employment relationships

Nestandardne oblike dela v sodni praksi

Biserka Kogej Dmitrovič

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava sodne odločbe, v katerih je sodišče odločalo o delovnopravnih vprašanjih v zvezi z nestandardnimi oblikami dela. Kot nestandardne oblike dela so v članku obravnavane oblike dela po civilnih pogodbah, ki imajo vse elemente delovnega razmerja, zaradi česar sodišče ugotovi obstoj delovnega razmerja: agencijsko delo, to je zagotavljanje dela delavcev drugemu uporabniku, delo za določen čas in delo poslovodnih oseb, prokuristov in vodilnih delavcev. Obravnavani so procesni vidiki navedenih sporov kot tudi materialnopravna stališča, ki jih je zavzela sodna praksa v zvezi s posameznimi vprašanji. Predstavljene so najnovejše sodbe Vrhovnega sodišča RS z obravnavanih področij. Iz sodne prakse je razvidno, da sodišče ugotovi obstoj delovnega razmerja vedno, kadar so podani vsi elementi tega razmerja. Posredovanje dela delavcev lahko opravljajo le za to registrirane agencije, ki morajo praviloma s temi delavci skleniti pogodbo o zaposlitvi za nedoločen čas. Sklenitev pogodbe o zaposlitvi za določen čas je zakonita le v primeru dejanskega izpolnjevanja zakonsko predpisanih razlogov. Poslovodni delavci, prokuristi in vodilni delavci imajo lahko drugačne pogodbe o zaposlitvi od običajnih delavcev in ne uživajo vedno enakega delovnopravnega varstva kot običajni delavci.

Ključne besede: pogodba o zaposlitvi, delovno razmerje, delo za določen čas, agencijsko delo, delo po civilni pogodbi, delo poslovodnih oseb, delo vodilnih delavcev, delo prokuristov

Title: Non-Standard Forms of Employment in Case Law

Abstract: The article examines judicial decisions, where the court decided on labour law issues related to non-standard forms of employment. The article examines non-standard forms of employment, such as civil law contract that have all elements of an employment relationship, resulting in a decision by the court that finds the existence of an employment relationship; agency work, i.e. providing worker''s labour to other users; fixed-term employment and employment of managers, procurators and executives. It also examines the procedural aspects of the above disputes, as well as substantive positions taken by case law in relation to specific issues. The article also presents recent decisions of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia in this field. Case law indicates that the Court always finds the existence of an employment relationship when all elements of such a relationship are presented. Agency work can be provided only by registered agencies, who as a rule need to conclude a permanent employment contract with these workers. Concluding a fixed-term employment contract is legal only when statutory requirements are met. Managers, procurators and executives can have different employment contracts than regular workers, and do not always enjoy the same labour law protection as regular workers.

Keywords: employment contract, employment relationship, fixed-term employment, agency work, civil law contract, employment of managers, employment of executives, employment of procurators

Identifikacija delničarjev in olajšanje

Saša Prelič

Povzetek: V prispevku je obravnavan predlog implementacije Delničarske direktive II v delu, v katerem se ta nanaša na identifikacijo delničarjev, posredovanje informacij in olajševanje uveljavljanja pravice delničarjev. Implementacija je obravnavana z vidika predloga novele ZGD-1K.

Ključne besede: javne delniške družbe, identifikacija delničarjev, posrednik, posredniki v verigi, posredovanje informacij, Delničarska direktiva II, predlog ZGD-1K

Title: Identification of Shareholders and Easier Exercise of their Corporate Rights

Abstract: The article deals with the rights of companies to identify their respective shareholders, transmission of information and facilitation of the exercise of shareholders? rights, according to the proposal for the implementation of the Directive (EU) 2017/838 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2017 amending Directive 2007/36/EC as regards of encouragement of long-term shareholder engagement. The directive shall be implemented with the proposal of the act amending the Companies Act (ZGD-1K).

Keywords: listed public limited company, identification of shareholders, intermediary, chain of intermediaries, transmission of information, Shareholder Rights Directive II, proposal for act amending the Companies Act (ZGD-1K)

Politika prejemkov direktorjev - pravice delničarjev in informacije: po predlogu novele ZGD-1K

Marijan Kocbek

Povzetek: V prispevku avtor obravnava predlog implementacije Delničarske direktive II o spodbujanju dolgoročnega sodelovanja delničarjev glede pravic delničarjev in njihovega informiranja o politiki prejemkov direktorjev. To vprašanje se nanaša na vse člane organov vodenja in nadzora v delniških družbah z enotirnim in dvotirnim sistemom upravljanja, torej za člane uprav, nadzornih svetov ter izvršne direktorje. Avtor ugotavlja, da je Slovenija prejemke poslovodnih oseb že uskladila s priporočili EU, novela ZGD-1K pa bo tudi to področje v celoti uskladila z Delničarsko direktivo II. Osrednja novost v tej zvezi sta dva pravna akta, ki jih bodo po novem obvezno sprejemale vse javne delniške družbe, to sta tako imenovana politika prejemkov in poročilo o prejemkih. Po predlogu nove zakonske ureditve, ki je v skladu z opcijo, ki jo daje direktiva, je opredeljena posvetovalna narava glasovanja skupščine o politiki prejemkov. Tako bo še naprej osrednji organ, ki bo odločal o nagrajevanju uprav v delniških družbah, nadzorni svet. Glede na siceršnjo uzakonjeno načelo statutarne strogosti pa zakon dopušča, da se smiselno za enako politiko prejemkov odločijo tudi nejavne delniške družbe.

Ključne besede: prejemki poslovodnih oseb, javne delniške družbe, poročilo o prejemkih, politika prejemkov, sklep skupščine

Title: Remuneration Policy for Directors - Rights of Shareholders and Information: According to the Proposed Act Amending the Companies Act (ZGD-1K)

Abstract:
The author discusses the rights of shareholders and their information on the remuneration policy of directors according to the proposal for the implementation of the Shareholder Directive no. 2 in regards of encouragement of long-term shareholder engagement. This question refers to all members of the management and control bodies in public limited companies with a one-tier and two-tier management system, meaning, members of the board of directors, supervisory boards and executive directors. The author ascertains that Slovenia has already aligned this area with the recommendations adopted by the directive so far and the amendments of the Companies Act (ZGD-1K) will fully align this area with the Shareholder Rights Directive II. The central novelty in this regard are two legal acts, which will be mandatory for all listed companies - the remuneration policy and the remuneration report. In line with the option given by the Directive, the proposal establishes the consultative nature of the vote on the remuneration policy. Accordingly, the supervisory board remains the central body which decides on the remuneration of management in public limited companies. Taking into account the general principle of statutory strictness, the law permits that non-listed public limited companies decide on the same remuneration policy.

Keywords: remuneration of management, listed public limited company, remuneration report, remuneration policy, resolution of the general meeting

VSEBINA

Vsebina

stran 863 Patrick Vlačič Tehnologija veriženja blokov in vrednostni papirji Blockchain Technology and Documents of Title stran 874 Janja Hojnik Inteligentne naprave in človekove pravice Intelligent Devices and Human Rights

Patrick Vlačič

Povzetek: Nakladnica je ključni dokument v pomorskem prevozu, hkrati pa je tudi vrednostni papir. Nenavadno je, da leta 2019 velika večina pomorskih prevozov še vedno poteka z uporabo papirne nakladnice. Doslej se pomorski prevoz tovora ni informatiziral, ker informacijske tehnologije niso nujno pomenile prednosti, temveč večkrat celo dodatne aktivnosti in nove pravne dileme. Tehnologija veriženja blokov je nastala predvsem zaradi digitalnega denarja. Ima pa nekatere funkcije in značilnosti, ki so korak naprej pri dosedanjih tehnoloških omejitvah v povezavi z vrednostnimi papirji. To še ne pomeni, da je ta tehnologija dala odgovore na vsa odprta pravna vprašanja, ima pa nastavke, da končno omogoči informatizacijo pomorske prevozne industrije. Tehnološkemu delu mora slediti tudi rešitev pravnih vprašanj. V tem primeru so rešitve bodisi pogodbene ali zakonodajne narave.

Ključne besede: nakladnica, elektronska nakladnica, elektronski prenosni dokumenti, tehnologija veriženja blokov, pomorski prevoz tovora, Haaška pravila, Visbyjska pravila, Hamburška pravila, Rotterdamska pravila, CargoX

Title: Blockchain Technology and Documents of Title

Abstract: Bill of lading is an essential document in maritime transport, and is also a document of title. Oddly enough, in 2019, the vast majority of maritime transport is still in the process of issuing paper bills of lading. Until now, the use of electronic means in carriage of goods by sea has not been widespread because information technology has not necessarily been an advantage. On the contrary, many times additional activities and new legal dilemmas have arisen. Blockchain technology has been invented primarily because of cryptocurrencies. However, it has some features that can be a step forward in what have so far been technological limitations in documents of title. It does not mean that this technology has answered all the outstanding legal questions. However, blockchain has all the features to enable the maritime transport industry to be computerised. The technological part must also be followed by a solution of legal issues. In this case, the solutions are either contractual or legislative.

Keywords: bill of lading, electronic bill of lading, electronic transferable documents, blockchain, carriage of goods by sea, Hague Rules, Visby Rules, Hamburg Rules, Rotterdam Rules, CargoX

Janja Hojnik

Povzetek: Prispevek kratko oriše povezavo med umetno inteligenco in človekovimi pravicami. Avtorica zagovarja stališče, da je na človekovih pravicah utemeljen pristop k regulaciji umetne inteligence najboljša alternativa za varovanje človeštva pred najhujšimi tveganji, ki jih prinaša umetna inteligenca. Zaveza etičnemu razvoju in uporabi umetne inteligence je pomembna, a zaveza varovanju človekovih pravic je še pomembnejša. V tem pogledu je zlasti bistvena dosledna zaščita pravice do zasebnosti oziroma zaveza tistih, ki osebne podatke o ljudeh zbirajo, da bodo te podatke pri razvoju sistemov umetne inteligence v zelo raznovrstnih sferah življenja varovali. Potrebnih bo veliko raziskav o potencialnih grožnjah umetne inteligence za človekove pravice kot tudi ukrepov za ustrezno odzivanje na ta tveganja.
Ključne besede: dobra in slaba umetna inteligenca, Splošna deklaracija človekovih pravic, načela zaupanja vredne umetne inteligence v EU, pravo in etika
Title: Intelligent Devices and Human Rights

Abstract: The paper outlines the connection between artificial intelligence and human rights. The author argues that an approach to the regulation of artificial intelligence for the protection of mankind, based on human rights, is the best alternative to the risks brought about by artificial intelligence. Commitment to ethical development and use of artificial intelligence is important; however, a commitment to the protection of human rights is even more important. In this regard, in particular, the protection of the right to privacy is essential, so that those who collect personal data are committed to protecting this information in the development of systems of artificial intelligence in a very wide range of spheres of life. Finally, much research is still needed on potential threats of artificial intelligence to human rights, as well as appropriate measures to respond to those risks.
Keywords: good and bad artificial intelligence, General Declaration of Human Rights, principles of trustworthy artificial intelligence in the EU, law and ethics

Petra Weingerl

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava izzive, ki jih avtonomna vožnja prinaša na področju odgovornosti za škodo, ki jo povzročijo avtonomna vozila. Ti izzivi so povezani s pomembnim trendom, ki vpliva na prihodnost osebne mobilnosti - odločitve o vožnji se s človeka prenašajo na tehnologijo. Obstoječi sistem odgovornosti za škodo, ki jo povzročijo avtonomna vozila, v EU temelji na dveh stebrih: na obveznem zavarovanju odgovornosti za povračilo škode žrtvam prometnih nesreč in na odgovornosti proizvajalca avtonomnega vozila z napako. Z uvedbo avtonomnih vozil v cestni promet se pojavljajo nova tveganja, ki bi lahko vplivala na obstoječi koncept odgovornosti. Je veljavna zakonodaja ustrezna za povrnitev škode, ki jo povzroči avtonomno vozilo, ali pa bi bilo treba razmisliti o novi paradigmi? Vsakršna nova rešitev na tem področju mora biti rezultat tehtanja številnih interesov, upoštevati mora temeljne pravice vseh udeleženih, hkrati pa biti dovolj uravnotežena, da ne zaduši prihodnjih inovacij. Vendar pa noben sistem odgovornosti ni ustrezen, če postopkovna pravila v zvezi z dokazovanjem onemogočajo ali otežujejo dokazovanje elementov odškodninske odgovornosti.

Ključne besede: avtonomna vozila, škoda, tveganja, odgovornost proizvajalca, avtomobilsko zavarovanje, pravila dokazovanja
Title: Autonomous Vehicles and Civil Liability

Abstract: The paper addresses the challenges of autonomous driving in the area of civil liability. These challenges are linked to a trend that is affecting the future of personal mobility - driving decisions are transferred from humans to technology. The existing system of liability for damage caused by autonomous vehicles in the EU is based on two pillars: the compulsory insurance of liability for compensation of damage to road accident victims and the liability of the manufacturer of the autonomous vehicle with a defect. With the introduction of autonomous vehicles in road transport, new risks are created that could affect the existing concept of liability. Is existing legislation adequate to compensate for the damage caused by an autonomous vehicle, or should a new paradigm for liability be considered? Any new solution in the area of liability for damage caused by autonomous vehicles must be the result of weighing a number of interests, respecting the fundamental rights of all parties involved, while being sufficiently balanced not to stifle future innovation. However, no liability system is appropriate if the procedural rules on evidence make it impossible or difficult to prove the error and the causal link between the error and the damage.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, damage, risks, manufacturer''s liability, car insurance, rules of evidence

Liljana Selinšek

Povzetek: Stičišča kazenskega in upravnega postopka je mogoče opazovati na dveh ravneh: v konkretnih zadevah in s sistemskega vidika. Prispevek vsebuje kratko predstavitev obojega. Na ravni konkretnih primerov so poudarjena predhodna vprašanja ter prehajanje dokazov med obema vrstama postopkov. Na sistemski ravni pa sta obravnavana prekrškovni postopek kot sui generis mešanica upravnega in kazenskega postopka ter institut administrativnega sankcioniranja pravnih oseb, ki ima sistemski nastavek v Zakonu o prekrških, ni pa še del veljavnega pravnega reda na nobenem področju. Avtorica ugotavlja, da je prepletanje upravnega in kazenskega postopka v konkretnih primerih razmeroma neproblematično, saj zakonodaja vsebuje usmeritve glede večine pomembnejših vprašanj, ki se lahko pri tem odprejo. Nasprotno pa so na sistemski ravni zadeve precej bolj kompleksne in odpirajo tudi vprašanja, povezana z vlogo posamezne veje v pravnem sistemu kot celoti in zmožnostjo prava slediti hitremu družbenemu razvoju.

Ključne besede: prekršek, kaznivo dejanje, kazenski postopek, upravni postopek, postopek o prekršku, administrativno sankcioniranje pravnih oseb, predhodno vprašanje, identično dejansko stanje

Title: Juncture(s) of Administrative and Criminal Proceedings

Abstract: The juncture(s) of criminal and administrative proceedings can be observed on two levels: in concrete cases and from the systemic point of view. The article offers a short presentation of both. In concrete cases, the emphasis is on preliminary issues and passage of evidences between both types of proceedings. On the systemic level, the author points out minor offence proceeding as a sui generis mixture of administrative and criminal proceeding, and a new system of administrative sanctioning of legal persons that has its legislative basis in Minor Offences Act, but is not yet effective in any field. The author finds that the juncture of administrative and criminal proceeding in concrete cases is generally unproblematic, since the law regulates most of the important questions that can arise in this field. However, on the systemic level, things are more complex and also raise issues related to the role of an individual branch in the legal system as a whole and the ability of the law to follow rapid social development.
Keywords: minor offence, criminal offence, criminal proceeding, administrative proceeding, minor offence proceeding, administrative sanctions for legal persons, preliminary issue, identical actual situation

Polonca Kovač

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava problematiko molka upravnih organov, kar avtorica postavi v širši javnopravni oziroma evropski kontekst razvoja dobre uprave. V tem okviru je opozorjeno na dileme, kot so prednosti in slabosti negativne ali pozitivne fikcije ob molku organa, oficialna devolucija, odškodninska odgovornost ter razlika med predpisanim in razumnim rokom. Navedenih je več sodnih odločb o teh vprašanjih. Izhodišče prispevka je, da je molk organa kljub instrukcijski naravi predpisanega roka za odločitev nezakonito ravnanje. V prispevku so analizirani statistični podatki upravnega ministrstva glede rokovnega (ne)delovanja slovenskih upravnih organov v zadnjih letih. Avtorica ugotavlja, da sta tako pravna ureditev z določenimi roki in modelom negativne fikcije kot praksa izvajanja teh pravil v Sloveniji v grobem ustrezni. Po drugi strani so skrb vzbujajoča odstopanja na ravni regulacije z nesorazmernim ali nedodelanim uvajanjem pozitivne fikcije, pa tudi na ravni izvrševanja v nekaterih resorjih, zlasti z ekscesno dolgimi postopki pri socialnih pravicah. Zato bodo v prihodnje potrebne izboljšave, vendar bolj na ravni organizacije dela in ozaveščanja uradnih oseb kot normativno.

Ključne besede: molk (upravnega) organa, negativna in pozitivna fikcija, predpisani in razumni roki odločanja, pravno varstvo

Title: Significance and Impacts of Silence in Administrative Procedures

Abstract: The paper addresses the problem of administrative silence, which the author places in the broader public law and European context of the development of good governance and good administration. In this framework, various dilemmas are addressed, such as the (dis)advantages of negative or positive in administrative silence, official devolution, liability for damages, and the difference between the prescribed and reasonable deadlines. A series of judgments on these issues are highlighted. In sum, the administrative silence, despite the instructional nature of the prescribed deadline for decision, is an illegal phenomenon. There are also analyses of the statistical data of the (in)activity of Slovenian administrative bodies in recent years according to the data of the Ministry of Public Administration. It is collectively noted that both the legal system with specific deadlines and the general model of negative fiction and the practice of implementing these rules in Slovenia are roughly adequate. On the other hand, there are concerns raised, both at the level of regulation with a disproportionate or incomplete introduction of a positive fiction in sector-specific statutes, as well as at the level of enforcement in some sectors, in particular by excessively long proceedings in social field. Therefore, in the future, there is a need to improve the situation, but rather in organisational terms and by increasing officials'' awareness than on the normative level.

Keywords: administrative silence, negative and positive fiction, prescribed and reasonable decision-making deadlines, legal protection

Erik Kerševan

Povzetek: Ob sprejetju Splošne uredbe se je pojavila vrsta novih pravnih vidikov, ki vplivajo na zbiranje in druge oblike obdelave osebnih podatkov v upravnih postopkih. Nanašajo se na vprašanje zakonitosti navedene obdelave z vidika zahtev prava Evropske unije, ki se dopolnjujejo z zahtevami varstva človekovih pravic, predvsem glede varstva osebnih podatkov. S temi izzivi se bosta morali upravna in sodna praksa v Republiki Sloveniji šele soočiti.

Ključne besede: upravni postopek, osebni podatki, Splošna uredba, pravo Evropske unije, človekove pravice

Title: Collection and Use of Personal Data in Administrative Procedures

Abstract: As a result of the adoption of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), a number of new legal aspects are emerging that affect the collection and other forms of processing of personal data in administrative proceedings. These concern both the issue of lawfulness of said processing in the light of the requirements of European Union law, which are complemented by the requirements of the protection of human rights, in particular regarding the protection of personal data. Administrative and judicial practice in the Republic of Slovenia will have to face these challenges in the future.

Keywords: administrative procedure, personal data, GDPR, EU law, human rights

Jurij Lampič

Povzetek: Rikardijanske pogodbe (angl. Ricardian contracts) so pravnotehnološki koncept sestave, sklepanja in izpolnjevanja pogodb. Rikardijanska pogodba v enem elektronskem dokumentu združuje pogodbeno besedilo v običajnem pravnem jeziku s semantično identično različico, izraženo v strojno berljivem formaliziranem jeziku. Taka kombinacija teoretično omogoča izvršljivost pogodbe prek sodnega sistema, hkrati pa tudi avtomatizacijo izvršitvenih ravnanj, upravljanja, analize in - če je to za pogodbo relevantno - zagotavljanja skladnosti poslovanja. Prispevek se na kratko dotakne tudi tako imenovanih pametnih pogodb v verigi podatkovnih blokov (angl. smart contracts) in opozori na njihove omejitve. V nasprotju s pametnimi pogodbami rikardijanske pogodbe ne zahtevajo popolne formalizacije pogodbenih določil, temveč sestavljavcu še vedno omogočajo uporabo pomensko odprtih pravnih pojmov (na primer sklicev na standarde skrbnosti). Implementacije rikardijanskih pogodb so trenutno večinoma v fazi aplikativnih raziskav, se pa predvsem v finančni industriji (na primer na področju izvedenih finančnih instrumentov) že pojavljajo tudi delujoči sistemi. Prispevek prikaže nekaj teoretičnih vprašanj, ki jih odpira ta koncept, predvsem problematiko razvoja ustreznega formaliziranega jezika (ali jezikov) in s tem povezan problem prevedljivosti (zagotavljanje pomenske enakosti različic v naravnem in formaliziranem jeziku). Za uresničitev polnega nabora funkcionalnosti rikardijanskih pogodb bo potrebna tudi dograditev ustreznega pravnega okvira in tehnične infrastrukture, glavni izziv za širšo uveljavitev pa je trenutno pomanjkanje enotnih standardov za formalizirani jezik in podatkovne formate.

Ključne besede: rikardijanske pogodbe, pogodba kot programska oprema, avtomatizacija pogodb, tehnologija veriženja podatkovnih blokov, tehnologija razpršenih evidenc, Ethereum Virtual Machine, problem prevedljivosti, računalniško podprte pogodbe, računalniško podprto pravo, nadzorovan pravni naravni jezik

Title: Ricardian Contracts: The Future of Contract Law or a Niche Product?

Abstract: Ricardian contracts are a concept in legal technology pertaining to drafting, execution and fulfilment of legal contracts. A Ricardian contract combines, in a single electronic document, contractual matter rendered in regular natural legal language with the semantically identical version in machine-readable formalised language. Such coupling enables (in theory) the contract to be enforceable through a court system, as well as automation of its performance, management, analysis and - to the extent relevant for a particular agreement - compliance assurance. The paper also briefly touches upon the so-called blockchain "smart" contracts and highlights their limitations. In contrast to smart contracts, Ricardian contracts do not require complete formalisation of contractual provisions and still allow the drafter to use semantically open-ended legal terms (such as references to duties of care). Ricardian contract implementations are currently largely in the applied research phase; however, some functioning systems are already being deployed predominately in the financial sector (e.g. in the field of derivatives). The paper sketches certain theoretical questions related to the concept, in particular the issue of developing an appropriate formalised language (or languages) and an associated problem of translation (ensuring semantic equivalence between the natural and formalised language versions). In order to realise the full scope of functionalities offered by Ricardian contracts, legal frameworks and technical infrastructure will need to be updated, while the greatest challenge for wider adoption currently lies in the lack of common standards with respect to the formalised language and data formats.

Keywords: Ricardian contracts, contract-as-software, smart contracts, contract automation, blockchain, distributed ledger technology, Ethereum Virtual Machine, translation problem, computational contracts, computational law, controlled legal natural language

Konrad Plauštajner

Povzetek: Sodobne gospodarske razmere, ki jih oblikuje predvsem hiter tehnični razvoj, zahtevajo tudi na področju gradbeništva projektno povezovanje sicer samostojnih gospodarskih subjektov za dosego poslovnih ciljev in uspeha. Zato je konzorcij, ki ni pravna oseba, ampak le začasna delovna skupnost, zelo primerna oblika skupnega nastopanja več ponudnikov pri pridobitvi poslov. V Sloveniji ni zakonsko urejen, vendar temelji na societas, pri čemer se lahko notranja razmerja med člani konzorcija urejajo avtonomno. Standardne klavzule pogodbe o konzorciju urejajo razmerja med njegovimi člani, kot so namen pogodbe, obseg in razdelitev nalog, ki jih prevzemajo člani konzorcija, imenovanje vodilnega člana konzorcija, ki vstopi v pogodbeno razmerje z naročnikom, upravljanje poslov v konzorciju, garancije in jamstva do naročnika, notranje obveznosti v konzorciju, plačila in trajanje ter prenehanje pogodbe. De lege ferenda ni pričakovati zakonske ureditve konzorcija in zaenkrat tudi ni takšne potrebe. To ne pomeni, da se teorija in praksa glede konzorcijske pogodbe ne razvijata, saj v gradbeništvu ta pogodba nima alternative, ne glede na to, kako jo stranke poimenujejo.

Ključne besede: konzorcij, konzorcijska pogodba, član konzorcija - konsort, vodilni član konzorcija, naročnik, ponudnik, skupna ponudba, izvajalec, podizvajalec, garancija, notranja razmerja v konzorciju
Title: Consortium Agreement in the Building Industry

Abstract: Contemporary commercial circumstances demand that commercial subjects who otherwise act independently unite in order to achieve common goals in various fields of commercials activities, including the building industry. Thus, a consortium, not being a legal person but only a temporary working community, represents a very convenient form of joint bidders to acquire a contract. In Slovenia, the consortium agreement is not regulated by law, but is based on rules of societas. The standardised clauses of a consortium agreement regulate the relations among its members, such as contract purpose, scope and distribution of duties to be assumed by individual consortium members, appointment of the leading member of a consortium who enters into the contract with the tenderee, management of affairs within the consortium, guarantees and warranties to the tenderee, internal obligations within the consortium, payments modalities, contract duration and its cessation. De lege ferenda we could not expect that the consortium agreement will be regulated by law. Besides, at the time being, there is no need for such regulation. This does not mean that theory and practice are not up-to-date regarding the consortium contract. There is no other alternative to the consortium agreement in the building industry.

Keywords: consortium, consortium agreement, member of consortium - consort, leading member of consortium, tenderee, tenderer, joint bid, contractor, subcontractor, guarantees, inside relationships in consortium

Vesna Kranjc

Povzetek: Poslovna praksa vrsto pogodb imenuje lizinške pogodbe. Nekatere od njih izpolnjujejo pogoje za zakupno (najemno) pogodbo po Obligacijskem zakoniku, po drugi strani pa specifične okoliščine finančni lizing oddaljujejo od zakupa. Prispevek analizira te okoliščine (predmet lizinga, ki ga lizingodajalec kupi zaradi sklenitve lizinške pogodbe, specificira lizingojemalec; lizinško nadomestilo se določi glede na lizingodajalčeve stroške nakupa predmeta). Prispevek pritrjuje stališču, da ima finančni lizing naravo zakupne pogodbe, vendar pa posebne okoliščine pri finančnem lizingu zahtevajo uporabo posebnih pravil. Podaja izhodišča za uporabo pravil pri vprašanjih, ki ne omogočajo podreditve pod zakupno pogodbo.

Ključne besede: pogodba o finančnem lizingu, pravna narava finančnega lizinga, zakupna pogodba s finančnim namenom, prodaja na obroke, Konvencija UNIDROIT o mednarodnem finančnem lizingu

Title: Financial Leasing Contract

Abstract: Business practice uses the term leasing/lease for a number of contracts. Some of them qualify as the lease contract, as is regulated in the Code of Obligations. However, the specific characteristics of financial leasing varies from the lease contract. This article analyses its relevant characteristics - lessor buys goods on specifications made by the lessee, the goods are acquired by the lessor in connection with the lease agreement, the rent is calculated according to the lessor''s cost of purchasing item. The article affirms the view that financial leasing has the nature of a lease, but that specific circumstances on the financial leasing side require the application of specific rules. The article also presents the basis for applying the specific rules to cases that do not allow subordination under a lease contract.

Keywords: financial leasing contract, legal nature of financial lease, lease with financing purpose, credit sale, UNIDROIT Convention on International Financial Leasing

Matija Damjan

Povzetek: Svetovalna pogodba je v praksi pogost pogodbeni tip, ki ima na področjih različnih strok razmeroma standardizirano vsebino. Svetovalec ima posebno strokovno, tehnično ali drugo znanje, ki ga za dogovorjeno odmeno posreduje naročniku v obliki nasveta ali mnenja. Naročnik se na podlagi svetovanja sam odloča glede svojega nadaljnjega ravnanja. Pogodba v Obligacijskem zakoniku ni posebej urejena, glede na vsebino obveznosti svetovalca pa jo je mogoče kvalificirati bodisi kot podjemno pogodbo bodisi kot mandat. Razlika med njima je zlasti v dolžnosti svetovalca, da si prizadeva za uresničitev naročnikovega interesa. Od pravne kvalifikacije je odvisno tudi, kaj se šteje za napako svetovanja, za katero svetovalec odgovarja.
Ključne besede: svetovalec, konzultant, podjemna pogodba, mandat, napaka svetovanja

Title: Consulting Agreement

Abstract: The consulting agreement is a common contractual type in practice, with a relatively standardised content in the fields of different disciplines. The consultant, who has specific professional, technical or other knowledge, communicates this knowledge to the client, against remuneration, in the form of an advice or an opinion. Based on the advice, the client makes their own decision on their further conduct. The consulting agreement is not specifically regulated in the Obligations Code, and, depending on the content of the consultant''s obligation, can be qualified either as a contract for services or as a mandate contract. The difference between them is, in particular, the consultant''s duty to pursue the fulfilment of the client''s interest. What is considered a consulting error for which the consultant may be held liable also depends on the legal qualification of the contract.
Keywords: consultant, contract for services, mandate contract, consulting error

Vesna Rijavec, Tomaž Keresteš

Povzetek: Avtorja v prispevku obravnavata razmerja med subjekti v družinskih nepravdnih postopkih, še posebej s položajem zakonitih udeležencev ter položajem centrov za socialno delo (CSD). Ugotavljata, da pojem zakonitega udeleženca za slovenski nepravdni postopek ne predstavlja nobene posebne novosti. Prav tako podrobno obravnavata novo vlogo CSD v nepravdnem postopku. Kot posebej problematično področje se kaže razmejitev položaja CSD in položaja izvedenca, kjer pa se avtorja vseeno zavzemata, da se sodišča vzdržijo nepotrebnega postavljanja izvedencev, ki podražijo postopek in podaljšajo njegov tek.

Ključne besede: nepravdni postopek, subjekti postopka, udeleženci, center za socialno delo, izvedenci, druge osebe
Title: Relationship between Subjects in Non-Contentious Procedures concerning Family Matters (Issue of Social Work Centre, Experts and Other Persons Protecting the Child’s Interests)

Abstract: The authors of the article examine the relationships among subjects in non-contentious procedure concerning family matters, with a special emphasis on the role of participants by virtue of law and the social work centres. They find that a notion of a participant by virtue of law does not represent any novelty in Slovenian non-contentious procedure. They also examine in detail the new role of social work centres in non-contentious procedure. They find a delimitation between the position of centres and experts especially problematic. However, they argue that the courts should abstain from unnecessary appointment of experts that can raise the cost of the procedure and prolong its duration.

Keywords: non-contentious procedure, subjects of procedure, participants, social work centre, experts, other persons

Dragica Wedam Lukić

Povzetek: Otroku je bila že z Zakonom o pravdnem postopku priznana pravica, da izrazi svoje mnenje v postopku, v katerem sodišče odloča o varstvu in vzgoji otrok ter o stikih staršev in drugih oseb z otroki. S prenosom odločanja o družinskih zadevah v nepravdni postopek je bil njegov položaj še okrepljen, saj mu zakon priznava pravico, da izrazi svoje mnenje v vseh postopkih, v katerih se odloča o varstvu njegovih koristi. Zaradi varstva koristi otroka lahko sodišče odloči, da se staršem ne dovoli, da bi se seznanili z vsebino razgovora z otrokom, vendar mora v tem primeru dele izjav, na katere je oprlo svojo odločitev, povzeti v obrazložitvi odločbe. Ker je s tem omejena pravica staršev do seznanitve s celotnim procesnim gradivom že v postopku na prvi stopnji, bi moralo sodišče to določbo razlagati restriktivno in staršem omejiti pravico, da se seznanijo z vsebino otrokove izjave, samo če bi imelo razkritje otrokovega mnenja zanj škodljive posledice. Pri tem mora pravico staršem omejiti le toliko, kolikor je to nujno za varstvo otrokovih pravic. Na koncu avtorica opozarja, da bi zaradi vloge, ki jo ima v postopku pridobivanja otrokovega mnenja center za socialno delo, lahko prišlo do zastojev v postopku, s tem pa do kršitve otrokove pravice do sojenja v razumnem roku in posledično celo do kršitve njegove pravice do družinskega življenja.
Ključne besede: nepravdni postopek, pravica do izjave, spori iz družinskih razmerij, postopki za varstvo koristi otroka, otrokove pravice, pravica otroka, da izrazi svoje mnenje, pravica otroka do zastopnika

Title: Right to be Heard in Non-Contentious Proceedings concerning Family Matters
Abstract: The Contentious Civil Procedure Act had already given a child the right to express their opinion in the proceedings in which the court decides on the custody of children and on the contacts of parents and other persons with children. With the transfer of decision- -making in family matters to non-contentious proceedings, the position of children was strengthened, as the law recognises their right to express their views in all proceedings in which the court decides on the protection of their interests. Due to the protection of the interests of a child, the court may decide that the parents are not allowed to be informed about the content of the interview with the child; however, in this case, parts of statements, on which the Court has based its decision, must be summarised in the reasons for the decision. Consequently, the right of parents to be informed about the entire procedural material already in the proceedings on the first instance is limited. Therefore, the court should interpret that provision in a narrow sense and restrict parents'' right to be heard only if the disclosure of the child''s opinion has severe damaging consequences for the child, and only so far as it is essential for the protection of child''s rights. In the end, the author calls attention to the fact that social work centre plays an important role in the procedure for the obtaining the child''s opinion, which could cause delays in the proceedings and lead to the violation of child''s right to the decision in a reasonable time, and consequently even to a violation of the child''s right to family life.

Keywords: non-contentious proceedings, right to be heard, disputes in family matters, proceedings for the protection of child''s interests, children''s rights, right of a child to express their opinion, right of a child to a representative

Mateja Končina Peternel

Povzetek: Določba 42. člena ZNP-1 sodnikom omogoča prožnost pri prilagajanju določb ZPP o prekluziji posebnostim posameznega nepravdnega postopka. To je tudi v skladu s smernicami v sodobnih ureditvah civilnih postopkov. V vseh nepravdnih postopkih lahko udeleženci ves čas postopka na prvi stopnji in še v pritožbi navajajo nova dejstva in predlagajo nove dokaze, če so v korist oseb, ki niso sposobne, da bi same skrbele za svoje pravice in interese. Kadar pa gre za navajanje drugih dejstev in ugovorov, je treba pri uporabi določb ZPP o prekluziji tudi v tistih predlagalnih nepravdnih postopkih, ki se nanašajo na ureditev premoženjskopravnih razmerij in so po svoji naravi najbližji pravdnemu postopku, upoštevati, ali so bili udeleženci postopka dovolj jasno opozorjeni, do kdaj morajo opraviti določena procesna dejanja in tudi kakšne posledice jih bodo zadele, če tega ne bodo storili.
Ključne besede: pravdni postopek, prekluzija, smiselna uporaba, predlagalni nepravdni postopki, uradni nepravdni postopki

Title: Preclusions in Non-Contentious Proceedings
Abstract: The provision of Article 42 of the Non-Contentious Civil Procedure Act (ZNP-1) allows judges to be creative in adapting the preclusion provisions of the Contentious Civil Procedure Act (ZPP) in different non-contentious proceedings. This is also in line with the trends in modern civil procedures. In all non-contentious proceedings, the parties may, at the first instance and in the appeal, present new facts and suggest new evidence if they are for the benefit of persons who are not capable of taking care of their rights and interests. When it comes to presenting other facts and objections, however, even in those proposed non-contentious proceedings relating to the regulation of property relations and which are by their nature closer to the contentious procedure, it must be taken into account whether the participants in the proceeding have been sufficiently clearly warned which procedural acts they have to perform and also what consequences they will suffer if they fail to do so.
Keywords: preclusion, contentious proceedings, non-contentious proceedings, non-contentious proceedings, meaningful use

Darja Senčur Peček

Povzetek: V prispevku je obravnavano vprašanje opredelitve pojma prekarnost, v nadaljevanju pa so najbolj pogoste oblike dela v Sloveniji (delovno razmerje za določen čas, študentsko delo, delovno razmerje s krajšim delovnim časom, agencijsko delo ter navidezni samozaposleni in druga prikrita delovna razmerja) analizirane z vidika tveganja za prekarnost. Predstavljeni so tudi možni ukrepi za preprečevanje oziroma odpravljanje prekarnosti, aktualni tudi za slovensko ureditev.
Ključne besede: prekarno delo, nestandardne oblike dela, zaposlitev za določen čas, študentsko delo, zaposlitev za krajši delovni čas, agencijsko delo, navidezni samozaposleni, prikrita delovna razmerja

Title: Challenges of Labour Law in Times of Precarious Work
Abstract: The author initially examines the definition of precarity, and then analyses the most common non-standard forms of employment in Slovenia (fixed-term employment, student work, part- -time employment, temporary agency work, false self-employment and other disguised employment relationships) from the perspective of the risk of precarity. The article is concluded with an explanation of some possible measures for combating precarity in Slovenia.
Keywords: precarious work, non-standard forms of employment, fixed-term, student work, part-time, temporary agency work, false self-employment, disguised employment relationships

Biserka Kogej Dmitrovič

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava sodne odločbe, v katerih je sodišče odločalo o delovnopravnih vprašanjih v zvezi z nestandardnimi oblikami dela. Kot nestandardne oblike dela so v članku obravnavane oblike dela po civilnih pogodbah, ki imajo vse elemente delovnega razmerja, zaradi česar sodišče ugotovi obstoj delovnega razmerja: agencijsko delo, to je zagotavljanje dela delavcev drugemu uporabniku, delo za določen čas in delo poslovodnih oseb, prokuristov in vodilnih delavcev. Obravnavani so procesni vidiki navedenih sporov kot tudi materialnopravna stališča, ki jih je zavzela sodna praksa v zvezi s posameznimi vprašanji. Predstavljene so najnovejše sodbe Vrhovnega sodišča RS z obravnavanih področij. Iz sodne prakse je razvidno, da sodišče ugotovi obstoj delovnega razmerja vedno, kadar so podani vsi elementi tega razmerja. Posredovanje dela delavcev lahko opravljajo le za to registrirane agencije, ki morajo praviloma s temi delavci skleniti pogodbo o zaposlitvi za nedoločen čas. Sklenitev pogodbe o zaposlitvi za določen čas je zakonita le v primeru dejanskega izpolnjevanja zakonsko predpisanih razlogov. Poslovodni delavci, prokuristi in vodilni delavci imajo lahko drugačne pogodbe o zaposlitvi od običajnih delavcev in ne uživajo vedno enakega delovnopravnega varstva kot običajni delavci.
Ključne besede: pogodba o zaposlitvi, delovno razmerje, delo za določen čas, agencijsko delo, delo po civilni pogodbi, delo poslovodnih oseb, delo vodilnih delavcev, delo prokuristov

Title: Non-Standard Forms of Employment in Case Law
Abstract: The article examines judicial decisions, where the court decided on labour law issues related to non-standard forms of employment. The article examines non-standard forms of employment, such as civil law contract that have all elements of an employment relationship, resulting in a decision by the court that finds the existence of an employment relationship; agency work, i.e. providing worker''s labour to other users; fixed-term employment and employment of managers, procurators and executives. It also examines the procedural aspects of the above disputes, as well as substantive positions taken by case law in relation to specific issues. The article also presents recent decisions of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia in this field. Case law indicates that the Court always finds the existence of an employment relationship when all elements of such a relationship are presented. Agency work can be provided only by registered agencies, who as a rule need to conclude a permanent employment contract with these workers. Concluding a fixed-term employment contract is legal only when statutory requirements are met. Managers, procurators and executives can have different employment contracts than regular workers, and do not always enjoy the same labour law protection as regular workers.
Keywords: employment contract, employment relationship, fixed-term employment, agency work, civil law contract, employment of managers, employment of executives, employment of procurators

Etelka Korpič Horvat

Povzetek: Avtorica ugotavlja, da je zakonodajalec ob sprejetju Zakona o javnih uslužbencih sledil cilju čim bolj enake pravne ureditve uslužbenskih razmerij v primerjavi z delovnimi razmerji delavcev v zasebnem sektorju po Zakonu o delovnih razmerjih. Cilj take ureditve je bil, da bi bilo delo javnih uslužbencev čim bolj učinkovito in uspešno ter da ne bi prihajalo do neenakega obravnavanja javnih uslužbencev glede na primerljivost položajev z delavci. Avtorica meni, da se je zakonodajalec oddaljil od tega cilja z določitvijo prepovedi uporabe načela in favorem laboratoris v korist delavca, ker delodajalec javnim uslužbencem ne sme priznavati večjega obsega pravic iz delovnega razmerja, kot so določene v predpisih in kolektivnih pogodbah, kar pa ne velja za zasebni sektor. Z uveljavitvijo Zakona o javnih uslužbencih sta položaja javnega uslužbenca in delavca postala bolj primerljiva prek instituta pogodbe o zaposlitvi, ki jo morajo za nastanek delovnega razmerja sklepati tudi uradniki. Avtorica nadalje ugotavlja, da je Ustavno sodišče presojalo ustavno dopustnost različne ureditve položaja delavca in javnega uslužbenca. Kaj je upoštevalo kot dopustno ali nedopustno delovno pravno normiranje, ki povzroči razlikovanje položaja javnega uslužbenca v primerjavi z delavcem, avtorica prikaže s posameznimi ustavnosodnimi presojami.
Ključne besede: delavec, javni uslužbenec, položaj, pravice, obveznosti, delovno razmerje, uslužbensko razmerje, pogodba o zaposlitvi, ustavnosodne presoje

Title: Comparability of Positions of Public Servants and Employees
Abstract: The author finds that, when adopting the Public Servants Act, the legislature pursued the objective of ensuring that the legal regulation of the employment relationships of public servants is as equal as possible to that of employment relationships of employees in the private sector under the Employment Relationships Act. The rationale for such a regulation was to ensure that the work of public servants is as effective and successful as possible, and that there is no unequal treatment of public servants in comparison with employees in the private sector. The author believes that, by imposing the prohibition of applying the principle in favorem laboratoris (i.e. to the benefit of the employee), the legislature distanced itself from that objective, as the employer may not recognise public servants a range of rights arising from the employment relationship that is greater than that determined in regulations and collective agreements, which, on the contrary, does not apply to the private sector. As the Public Servants Act entered into force, the positions of public servants on one hand and employees on the other became more comparable as a result of the institute of an employment contract, which public officials must also conclude in order to enter into an employment relationship. Furthermore, the author concludes that the Constitutional Court reviewed the constitutional admissibility of the difference in the regulation of the positions of employees and public servants. By presenting individual decisions adopted by the Constitutional Court, the author demonstrates which legislative actions the Constitutional Court considers admissible or inadmissible from the perspective of labour law; the latter being legislative actions that cause a differentiation between the positions of public servants and employees.
Keywords: employee, public servant, position, rights, obligations, employment relationship, employment relationship of a public servant, employment contract, Constitutional Court case law

Marijan Papež

Povzetek: Predlog Zakona o spremembah in dopolnitvah Zakona o pokojninskem in invalidskem zavarovanju je bil po obravnavi na Ekonomsko-socialnem svetu (ESS) julija 2019 in po zaključku dela pogajalske skupine, 16. julija 2019 dan v javno obravnavo. Predlagane spremembe prinašajo prilagoditev sistema in ne pomenijo reforme, ki jo bo v naslednjih letih treba izvesti za zagotovitev dolgoročne vzdržnosti pokojninske blagajne in istočasno zagotavljanje dostojnih oziroma dostojnejših pokojnin. Bistvene so novosti na področju odmernega odstotka, kjer naj bi se postopno izenačila spola, kar je vsekakor pozitivna rešitev, glede katere se je pogajalska skupina hitro poenotila. In sicer bo odmerni odstotek za 40 let pokojninske dobe 63,5. Višina odmernega odstotka bo pozitivno vplivala na višino vseh vrst pokojnin (starostne, predčasne, invalidske, vdovske, družinske, delne), nadomestil iz invalidskega zavarovanja in dela vdovske pokojnine, kar se vsekakor ujema s ciljem zagotavljanja dostojnejših pokojnin. Zelo pomembna je tudi določitev višjega odmernega odstotka za 15 let zavarovalne dobe; danes je pri 26 odstotkih za moške oziroma 29 odstotkih za ženske, postopno pa se bo za oboje zvišal na 29,5 odstotka. Pomembna novost je tudi dodatni odmerni odstotek za otroke, in sicer za največ tri, ter tudi znižanje ugodnejšega vrednotenja pokojninske dobe brez dokupa s sedanjih 4 odstotkov na 3 za eno leto dodatne pokojninske dobe brez dokupa in uvedba te ugodnosti tudi ob ponovni vključitvi v obvezno zavarovanje. V zvezi z dvojnim statusom je bil sprejet do neke mere kompromisen predlog, ki bi osebam, ki bodo izpolnile pogoje za starostno pokojnino, omogočil, da bi jim namesto sedanjih 20 izplačevali 40 odstotkov pokojnine, kar pa bi bilo omejeno na največ tri leta. Vendar je pred sprejemom drugačne ureditve dvojnega statusa treba proučiti čim več dejavnikov, ki nanj vplivajo. Postopno podaljšanje starosti za najmanj 15 let zavarovalne dobe s 65 na 67 let v predlog sprememb ni vključeno, o tem bo tekla razprava v okviru celovite reforme.
Ključne besede: predlog sprememb, odmerni odstotek, dodatni odmerni odstotek za otroke, dvojni status, pokojninska doba brez dokupa
Title: Current Issues Related to the Dual Status and Other Proposed Amendments to Pension and Disability Insurance Act (ZPIZ-2) in the Field of Compulsory Insurance

Abstract: Following an Economic and Social Council (ESC) discussion in July 2019 and the conclusion of the negotiating group''s work, a public hearing on the Act Amending the Pension and Disability Insurance Act was called for 16 July 2019. The proposed amendments represent adjustments to the system, rather than a reform thereof, which will need to be adopted over the next few years in order to both secure long-term sustainability of the pension fund and provide more decent pensions. The major changes relate to the assessment percentage, with the aim towards equal treatment of men and women, which is a step in the right direction; the negotiating group quickly agreed on the assessment percentage to be 63.5 percent for persons who have 40 years of pensionable service. The new assessment percentage will have a favourable impact on all types of pensions, namely the old-age, early, disability, widow/widower''s, family and partial pensions, as well as the benefits under the disability insurance scheme and the part of widow/widower''s pension, thereby pursuing the goal of providing more decent pensions. Furthermore, the assessment percentage for 15 years of insurance, which is currently 26 percent for men and 29 percent for women, will be gradually raised to 29.5 percent. Other important changes include: an additional assessment percentage for the care of a maximum of three children; a decrease in the valuation of pensionable service without purchase for persons with more than 40 years of pensionable service from the current 4 percent to 3 percent per an additional year of pensionable service; and the introduction of the option for persons who have re-joined the pension scheme to be able to claim the 3 percent valuation for the duration of re-joining. As to the dual pensioner-and- -insured person status, a compromise was reached, allowing persons who have fulfilled old-age pension requirements to get 40 percent of their pension instead of the current 20 percent, limited, however, to a maximum of 3 years. Before adopting a new dual status arrangement, it is necessary to consider as many factors as possible that might affect such an arrangement. A gradual increase in pensionable age from 65 to 67 years for persons with 15 years of insurance is not included in the proposal for amendments. This issue will be discussed in the context of a reform of the pension and disability insurance scheme.
Keywords: proposal for amendments, assessment percentage, additional assessment percentage for child care, dual status, pensionable service without purchase

Nina Plavšak

Povzetek: Prispevek analizira položaje, v katerih se lastninska pravica na eni nepremičnini lahko vključi v samostojno lastninsko pravico na drugi nepremičnini. Vključena lastninska pravica ni samostojno prenosljiva tako, da bi jo bilo mogoče prenesti neodvisno od prenosa samostojne lastninske pravice, v katero je vključena. Po drugi strani pa prenos samostojne lastninske pravice samodejno povzroči tudi prenos vključene lastninske pravice.
Ključne besede: vključena lastninska pravica
Title: Ownership Right Included in Another Ownership Right

Abstract: The article analyses the situations in which an ownership right on a real estate may become included in a stand-alone ownership right on another real estate, and the consequences of such inclusion. The included ownership right can no longer be transferred independently of transfer of the ownership right in which it is included. On the other hand, the transfer of the stand-alone ownership right automatically triggers a transfer of the included ownership right.

Keywords: ownership right included in another ownership right

Renato Vrenčur

Povzetek: Stvarnopravni zakonik (SPZ) se uporablja že sedemnajsto leto. V tem obdobju se je pri njegovi uporabi pokazalo, da nekatera pravna pravila ne ustrezajo potrebam sodobne poslovne prakse oziroma da bi bilo treba določena pravila popraviti. S ciljem priprave jasne, pregledne in funkcionalne ureditve stvarnopravnih razmerij je skupina pobudnikov (Miha Juhart, Nina Plavšak in Renato Vrenčur) že leta 2016 posredovala Ministrstvu za pravosodje RS strokovno gradivo za pripravo sprememb in dopolnitev SPZ. V prispevku se avtor ukvarja zlasti s tistimi predlogi sprememb in dopolnitev SPZ, ki se nanašajo na zastavno pravico.
Ključne besede: stvarno pravo, zastavna pravica, hipoteka, nepremičnina, premičnina, zunajsodna izvršitev zavarovanja
Title: Lien

Abstract: The Law of Property Code (SPZ) has been in effect for seventeen years. At its application during this period, it has emerged that some rules do not meet the needs of modern business practice, or that certain rules should be corrected. In order to prepare a clear, transparent and functional regulation, in 2016 a group of initiators (Miha Juhart, Nina Plavšak and Renato Vrenčur) submitted to the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Slovenia professional materials for the preparation of amendments to the Law of Property Code. In the article, the author examines specifically those amendments to the Law of Property Code relating to the lien.
Keywords: property law, lien, mortgage, real estate, movable property, out-of-court enforcement of collateral

Miha Juhart

Povzetek: Ena bistvenih značilnosti SPZ je koncept enovite lastninske pravice. Namen stvarnega prava je urejanje pravnih razmerij med posamezniki, zato instituti stvarnega prava niso vselej primerni za urejanje razmerij v javnem interesu, vendar se v praksi vseeno uporabljajo. Pravna podlaga za gradnjo infrastrukture je včasih služnost. Ker večinoma ne gre za povezanost dveh zemljišč, se v takšnih primerih ustanavlja neprava stvarna služnost. Nekatere njene značilnosti pa povzročajo težave. Za nepravo stvarno služnost velja, da se v korist pravne osebe lahko ustanovi največ za 30 let, investitor pa ima potrebo po pridobitvi pravice za daljše obdobje. Vprašanje pa je, ali naj se ta problem reši s spremembo SPZ ali pa s posebnim predpisom. Stavbna pravica se včasih uporablja, ko investitor razpolaga z zemljiščem, nima pa sredstev za gradnjo. V takšnih primerih se stavbna pravica ustanovi neodplačno, pričakuje pa se določeno stanje zgradbe ob prenehanju. Gre za tveganje, ki ga je zelo težko obvladovati. Zaradi takšnih potreb se je treba zelo pazljivo lotiti sprememb SPZ.
Ključne besede: Stvarnopravni zakonik, stvarno pravo, nepremičnine, neprava stvarna služnost, stavbna pravica
Title: Irregular Real Easement and Right of Superficies - Reflection on Regulation in Law of Property Code

Abstract: One of the essentials of the Slovenian Law of Property Code is the concept of a single property right. The task of Law of Property Code is to regulate legal relationships between individuals. Therefore, the institutions of property law are not always suitable for regulating the legal relations in public interest. However, this is happening. The legal basis for building the infrastructure is sometimes an easement. Mostly irregular real easement is used. However, some of its features cause problems. Irregular real easement could be established for the benefit of a legal entity for a maximum of 30 years. Mostly this period is too short and the investor needs to obtain the right for a longer time. This problem should not be solved with the amendments to Law of Property Code but within the special legislation. On the other hand, a building right is sometimes used when an investor disposes of land but does not have the finances to build the object. In such cases, the building right is established with expectation that the object will be transferred in certain condition upon termination. It is a risk that is very difficult to manage. Due to such needs, changes to the Law of Property Code need to be addressed very carefully.

Keywords: Law of Property Code, property law, real estate, irregular real easement, right of superficies

Franci Gerbec

Povzetek: V prispevku je predstavljeno stanje na področju neurejenega lastništva zemljišč, ki so v zasebni lasti, vendar pa so po odlokih občin kategorizirana kot lokalne ceste in javne poti, kar pomeni, da so ta zemljišča dejansko, ne pa tudi pravno razlaščena. Veljavna zakonodaja ne zagotavlja učinkovitega pravnega varstva lastnikov teh zemljišč, saj morajo lastniki vlagati pobude za oceno ustavnosti odlokov o kategorizaciji, občine pa nato niso pripravljene izvršiti niti odločb Ustavnega sodišča RS. Ključni problemi so predvsem ekonomske narave, saj ni urejen enoten sistem vrednotenja teh zemljišč na ravni države, občine pa tudi niso finančno sposobne pridobiti teh zemljišč z odkupom ali razlastitvijo in se tega sistematično izogibajo. Gre za zelo obsežno področje kršenja lastninske pravice velikega števila zasebnih lastnikov. Zato avtor predlaga, da se s posebnim zakonom uredi lastništvo teh zemljišč na podlagi enotnih pogojev in meril ter tudi z državnim sofinanciranjem, ker meni, da je samo tako mogoče zagotoviti enakopravnost lastnikov pred zakonom skladno s 14. členom Ustave.
Ključne besede: lastništvo zasebnih zemljišč, kategorizirane lokalne ceste in javne poti, enotna merila za vrednotenje, financiranje odkupa oziroma razlastitve
Title: Regulation of Private Land Categorised as Public Road and Public Path by Actual Use - de lege ferenda

Abstract: The author presents the current situation of non-regulated ownership of privately-owned land which, according to municipal ordinances, is categorised as a local road and/or a public path, meaning that such land has been de facto but not de jure expropriated. The applicable legislation does not provide efficient legal protection for the owners of such land, since the owners must file pleas for the constitutional review of the ordinances on categorisation and the municipalities are not willing to implement the decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia. The key problems are economic in nature, resulting from the lack of a uniform system of valuation of such land at the state level, while municipalities do not have the required financial resources to obtain such land through purchase or expropriation, which is why they systematically avoid this issue. This is a huge area of violation of the ownership rights of a large number of private owners. The author therefore proposes the adoption of a special act to regulate the ownership of such land based on uniform conditions and criteria, and co-financing by the state, since they believe this is the only way to ensure equality before the law among the owners pursuant to Article 14 of the Constitution.

Keywords: ownership of private land, categorised local roads and public paths, uniform valuation criteria, financing of purchase or expropriation

Saša Prelič

Povzetek: V prispevku je obravnavan predlog implementacije Delničarske direktive II v delu, v katerem se ta nanaša na identifikacijo delničarjev, posredovanje informacij in olajševanje uveljavljanja pravice delničarjev. Implementacija je obravnavana z vidika predloga novele ZGD-1K.
Ključne besede: javne delniške družbe, identifikacija delničarjev, posrednik, posredniki v verigi, posredovanje informacij, Delničarska direktiva II, predlog ZGD-1K
Title: Identification of Shareholders and Easier Exercise of their Corporate Rights

Abstract: The article deals with the rights of companies to identify their respective shareholders, transmission of information and facilitation of the exercise of shareholders? rights, according to the proposal for the implementation of the Directive (EU) 2017/838 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2017 amending Directive 2007/36/EC as regards of encouragement of long-term shareholder engagement. The directive shall be implemented with the proposal of the act amending the Companies Act (ZGD-1K).
Keywords: listed public limited company, identification of shareholders, intermediary, chain of intermediaries, transmission of information, Shareholder Rights Directive II, proposal for act amending the Companies Act (ZGD-1K)

Peter Podgorelec

Povzetek: Ena pomembnih novosti, ki jih prinaša Direktiva 2017/828, je tudi ureditev poslov s povezanimi strankami, ki določa odobritev in javno objavo podatkov o poslu kot zaščitna instrumenta. S predlagano novelo Zakona o gospodarskih družbah - ZGD-1K - je predvidena strožja ureditev poslov družb, z delnicami katerih se trguje na organiziranem trgu, s člani organov vodenja in nadzora ter prokuristi oziroma z njimi povezanimi osebami, ta ureditev pa se je - z izjemo javne objave podatkov o poslu - razširila še na nejavne delniške družbe ter na srednje in velike družbe z omejeno odgovornostjo. Kot organ, ki odloča o odobritvi posla, je predviden nadzorni svet oziroma upravni odbor, kar je v skladu z načelom adekvatnosti organa. Ob tem sta s predlagano novelo ZGD-1K predvideni še posebna ureditev pogodbe o svetovanju s člani organa nadzora in modifikacija ureditve pogodbe o opravljanju funkcije iz 262. člena ZGD-1.

Ključne besede: Direktiva 2017/828, posli s povezanimi strankami, implementacija, odobritev posla, objava podatkov o poslu
Title: Transparency and Approval of Related Party Transactions

Abstract: One of the important novelties introduced by Directive 2017/828 is the arrangement of transactions with related parties through the approval and publication of transaction data as protectionist instruments. With the proposed amendment to the Companies Act (ZGD-1K), a stricter arrangement of transactions with members of management or supervisory bodies and procurators, and persons associated with them, is provided for, whereby this arrangement - with the exception of the publication of transaction data - is also extended to unlisted public limited companies and middle-sized and large private limited companies. As the body which decides on the approval of a transaction, the supervisory or administrative board is envisaged, which is in line with the principle of adequacy of the body. Furthermore, the amendment to the Companies Act (ZGD-1K) also provides for a special arrangement of the consultancy contract with the members of the supervisory body and modification of the arrangement of the employment contract from Article 262 of the Companies Act (ZGD-1).

Keywords: Directive 2017/828, related party transactions, implementation, approval of transactions, publication of transaction data

Marijan Kocbek

Povzetek: V prispevku avtor obravnava predlog implementacije Delničarske direktive II o spodbujanju dolgoročnega sodelovanja delničarjev glede pravic delničarjev in njihovega informiranja o politiki prejemkov direktorjev. To vprašanje se nanaša na vse člane organov vodenja in nadzora v delniških družbah z enotirnim in dvotirnim sistemom upravljanja, torej za člane uprav, nadzornih svetov ter izvršne direktorje. Avtor ugotavlja, da je Slovenija prejemke poslovodnih oseb že uskladila s priporočili EU, novela ZGD-1K pa bo tudi to področje v celoti uskladila z Delničarsko direktivo II. Osrednja novost v tej zvezi sta dva pravna akta, ki jih bodo po novem obvezno sprejemale vse javne delniške družbe, to sta tako imenovana politika prejemkov in poročilo o prejemkih. Po predlogu nove zakonske ureditve, ki je v skladu z opcijo, ki jo daje direktiva, je opredeljena posvetovalna narava glasovanja skupščine o politiki prejemkov. Tako bo še naprej osrednji organ, ki bo odločal o nagrajevanju uprav v delniških družbah, nadzorni svet. Glede na siceršnjo uzakonjeno načelo statutarne strogosti pa zakon dopušča, da se smiselno za enako politiko prejemkov odločijo tudi nejavne delniške družbe.

Ključne besede: prejemki poslovodnih oseb, javne delniške družbe, poročilo o prejemkih, politika prejemkov, sklep skupščine

Title: Remuneration Policy for Directors - Rights of Shareholders and Information: According to the Proposed Act Amending the Companies Act (ZGD-1K)
Abstract: The author discusses the rights of shareholders and their information on the remuneration policy of directors according to the proposal for the implementation of the Shareholder Directive no. 2 in regards of encouragement of long-term shareholder engagement. This question refers to all members of the management and control bodies in public limited companies with a one-tier and two-tier management system, meaning, members of the board of directors, supervisory boards and executive directors. The author ascertains that Slovenia has already aligned this area with the recommendations adopted by the directive so far and the amendments of the Companies Act (ZGD-1K) will fully align this area with the Shareholder Rights Directive II. The central novelty in this regard are two legal acts, which will be mandatory for all listed companies - the remuneration policy and the remuneration report. In line with the option given by the Directive, the proposal establishes the consultative nature of the vote on the remuneration policy. Accordingly, the supervisory board remains the central body which decides on the remuneration of management in public limited companies. Taking into account the general principle of statutory strictness, the law permits that non-listed public limited companies decide on the same remuneration policy.
Keywords: remuneration of management, listed public limited company, remuneration report, remuneration policy, resolution of the general meeting

Jerneja Prostor

Povzetek: V prispevku je podrobneje obravnavano novo I.b poglavje Delničarske direktive I o preglednosti institucionalnih vlagateljev, upravljavcev premoženja in svetovalcev za glasovanje, ki je bilo v direktivo vneseno z Delničarsko direktivo II iz leta 2017. Pojasnjene so zahteve po razkritju (1) politike sodelovanja institucionalnih vlagateljev in upravljavcev premoženja na skupščinah družb, v katere se vlaga, (2) usklajenosti naložbene strategije institucionalnih vlagateljev s profilom in trajanjem njihovih obveznosti, (3) dogovora med institucionalnim vlagateljem in upravljavcem premoženja, če mu institucionalni vlagatelj prepusti upravljanje zbranih sredstev, (4) informacij o opravljanju storitev upravljavcev premoženja in (5) informacij o opravljanju storitev svetovalcev za glasovanje. Za vsako posamezno zahtevo po razkritju je pojasnjeno tudi, kako naj bi se predvidoma implementirala v slovenski in nemški pravni red. Prispevek problematizira nalaganje dolžnosti investicijskim vlagateljem in upravljavcev premoženja kot delničarjem, saj ti praviloma le uresničujejo svoje pravice, tradicionalno pa zaradi naložbe v družbo niso imeli tudi dolžnosti. Prav tako je obravnavana vedno pomembnejša vloga svetovalcev za glasovanje, urejanje položaja katerih utegne v prihodnje pomeniti izziv za zakonodajalce.

Ključne besede: Delničarska direktiva II, delničarjeve dolžnosti, institucionalni vlagatelj, upravljavec premoženja, svetovalec za glasovanje

Title: Transparency of Institutional Investors, Asset Managers and Proxy Advisors

Abstract: The article examines in detail the new Chapter Ib of the first Shareholder Rights Directive on the transparency of institutional investors, investment managers and proxy advisers, which was included in the directive by the Shareholder Rights Directive II in 2017. It clarifies the requirements for disclosure of (1) the engagement policy of institutional investors and investment managers at the general meetings of investee companies; (2) the consistency of the institutional investors'' investment strategy with the profile and duration of their liabilities; (3) the arrangement between the asset manager and institutional investor, where an asset manager invests on behalf of an institutional investor; (4) information about the services of the asset managers; and (5) information about the services of the proxy advisers. For each individual disclosure requirement, it is also explained how it is expected to be implemented in the Slovenian and German legal order. The duties of institutional investors and asset managers as shareholders are debated, as they traditionally only exercise their rights and have had no duties due to their investment in the company. It also addresses the increasingly important role of proxy advisers. The legal regulation on their position and their services may be a challenge for legislators in the future.

Keywords: Shareholder Rights Directive II, shareholder duties, institutional investor, asset manager, proxy advisor

Borut Bratina, Dušan Jovanovič

Povzetek: Revizijska direktiva in Uredba EU o reviziji subjektov javnega interesa (SJI) sta narekovali spremembe revizijske zakonodaje v državah članicah EU. Slovenija je evropsko zakonodajo na področju revidiranja upoštevala že v ZGD-1 in jo je zdaj dopolnila še z novelo Zakona o revidiranju ZRev-2A. V članku prikazujemo novosti in pojasnjujemo povezanost posameznih institutov, ki so urejeni v ZGD-1 in ZRev-2. Pojem SJI je z ZRev-2A na novo definiran in širi obseg subjektov tudi na podjetja v državni ali občinski večinski lasti. Za vse SJI zdaj neposredno velja Uredba EU o reviziji SJI, ki precej strogo določa pravila delovanja revizorjev in revizijskih podjetij. Postopek imenovanja revizorja je natančno določen. V skladu z ZRev-2A je minimalni mandat tri leta, kar naj bi povečalo revizorjevo neodvisnost. Agencija za javni nadzor nad revidiranjem pa je z ZRev-2A dobila pooblastila, da lahko tudi članom uprave, nadzornega sveta in revizijske komisije začasno prepove opravljanje njihovih nalog v družbi.

Ključne besede: Revizijska direktiva, Uredba EU o reviziji subjektov javnega interesa, ZRev-2A, ZGD-1, subjekt javnega interesa (SJI), obvezna revizija, pogodba o revidiranju, Agencija za javni nadzor nad revidiranjem
Title: Novelties and Connections of Institutes with the Amended Auditing Act and the Companies Act

Abstract: The Audit Directive and Regulation (EU) No 537/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on specific requirements regarding statutory audit of public interest entities and repealing Commission Decision 2005/909 EC have required amendments of audit legislation in all EU member states. Slovenia has followed the European legislation in the field of auditing in the Slovenian Companies Act (ZGD-1), and has now supplemented it with the Act Amending the Auditing Act (ZRev-2A). In the article, we are presenting the novelties and connections of individual institutes, which are regulated in the Slovenian Companies Act (ZGD-1) and the Slovenian Auditing Act (ZRev-2A). The term public interest entities has been newly defined by the Slovenian Auditing Act (ZRev-2A) and has widened the range of subjects of state-owned and municipality-owned companies. All public interest entities are now directly regulated by Regulation (EU) No 537/2014, which strictly determines the rules of work of auditors and auditing companies. The process of auditor''s appointment is precisely defined, with their mandate lasting three years according to the Slovenian Auditing Act (ZRev-2A), and as such increases the auditor''s independency. Slovenian Agency for Public Oversight of Auditing has hence gained the right to temporarily prohibit the work of board members, members of the supervisory council and auditing commission.
Keywords: Audit Directive (Directive 2014/56/EU), Regulation (EU) No 537/2014, Slovenian Auditing Act (ZRev-2A), Slovenian Companies Act (ZGD-1), public interest entities, statutory audit, audit contract, Slovenian Agency for Public Oversight of Auditing

Klemen Jaklič, Maša Setnikar in Vesna Božič Štajnpihler

Povzetek: Prispevek se v prvem delu ukvarja z vprašanjem, kje na glavni obravnavi sedi obtoženi. Iz nekaterih podatkov namreč izhaja, da mora obtoženi nemalokrat sedeti sam na sredini, na "zatožni klopi", in ne ob sodnikovi desni strani, kjer sicer sedi njegov zagovornik. V prispevku se obrazloži in zagovarja teza, da je s tem med drugim kršena obtoženčeva ustavna pravica do učinkovitega dostopa do zagovornika, ter pokaže na izvirne ustavnosodne poti, po katerih bi tovrstne, domnevno množične kršitve te pravice lahko učinkovito sanirali. V drugem delu prispevka je nato analiziran še novejši razvoj pravice do zgodnjega dostopa do zagovornika v praksi ESČP.

Ključne besede: pravica do zagovornika, sedežni red v sodni dvorani, sodni red, človekovo dostojanstvo, kazenski postopek, enakost orožij, pravica do zgodnjega dostopa do zagovornika

Title: Right to an Attorney: Two Aspects from Recent Jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court and the European Court of Human Rights

Abstract: The first part of the article examines the question of where in the courtroom the defendant is to be seated. Some have suggested that defendants are frequently ordered to sit right in the centre of the courtroom, by themselves, and not to the right of the judge, where their defence attorney is seated. We argue that this constitutes a violation of the defendant''s constitutional right to an attorney, which must not be unduly restricted. The article then proceeds to highlight original ways in which this could be remedied in a systemic and effective manner. In its second part, the article then turns to an analysis of the latest developments in the ECtHR jurisprudence regarding the right to an attorney at the earliest stage of criminal proceedings.
Keywords: right to an attorney, courtroom sitting order, human dignity, criminal proceeding, equality of arms, right to an early access to an attorney

Miha Šepec

Povzetek: Varstvo poklicne skrivnosti oziroma privilegirana komunikacija med obdolžencem in njegovim zagovornikom je ključni element poštenega postopka (fair trial). Če država ne omogoča varstva privilegirane komunikacije med zagovornikom in obdolžencem ali pa to celo aktivno izrablja, zagovornik ne more učinkovito opravljati svojega dela in temeljne pravice posameznika v kazenskem postopku ostanejo le mrtva črka na papirju. V prispevku so predstavljene praksa Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice glede varovanja poklicnih skrivnosti odvetnikov, ustavna odločba U-I-115/14-28, ki je zelo podrobno opredelila pomen odvetniške zasebnosti v kazenskem postopku, in spremembe, uvedene z novelo Zakona o kazenskem postopku ZKP-N, s katero so zakonsko urejene zahteve, ki jih je v svoji odločbi postavilo Ustavno sodišče.

Ključne besede: poklicna skrivnost, Ustavno sodišče RS, zaupna komunikacija, odvetniška zasebnost, privilegij zoper samoobtožbo, hišna preiskava, preiskava elektronske naprave

Title: Protection of Professional Secrecy during Criminal Offence Investigation in Light of the Decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia

Abstract: The protection of professional secrecy or privileged communication between the defendant and his attorney is a key element of a fair trial. If the state does not allow the protection of privileged communication between the defendant and his attorney, or even actively exploits it, then the attorney cannot perform his duty effectively and the fundamental rights of the defendant in criminal proceedings are only dead letters on a paper. In the article we will present the practice of the European Court of Human Rights on the protection of professional secrecy between defendants and their attorneys, Constitutional Decision UI-115/14-28, which has radically redefined the importance of professional secrecy in criminal proceedings, and amendment to the Criminal Procedure Act ZKP-N, which regulates the requirements laid down by the Constitutional Court in its decision.
Keywords: professional secrecy, Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia, confidential communication, lawyer''s privacy, privilege against self-incrimination, house search, search of an electronic device

Tomaž Bromše

Povzetek: Med pravnimi jamstvi obdolžencev v kazenskih postopkih je pravica do obrambe s strokovno pomočjo. V primerih obvezne obrambe, ko si obdolženi ne priskrbi zagovornika sam, mu ga postavi predsednik sodišča po uradni dolžnosti za nadaljnji tek kazenskega postopka. Predsednik sodišča sme v določenih primerih postavljenega zagovornika razrešiti, če ta ne opravlja v redu svoje dolžnosti. Članek obravnava okoliščine, v katerih je zaradi neustreznega dela postavljenega zagovornika potrebna intervencija sodišča, da se obdolžencu zagotovi pravica do poštenega sojenja.

Ključne besede: kazenski postopek, zagovornik, neustrezno opravljanje dolžnosti, pošteno sojenje

Title: Inadequate Performance of Defence Counsel and Criminal Court’s Role in Effective Formal Defence

Abstract: One of the defendants? legal guarantees in criminal proceedings is the right to be defended by a legal representative. If in the cases of mandatory defence the accused fails to retain defence counsel by themself, the president of the court appoints a defence counsel ex officio for the course of criminal proceedings. The president of the court may in some instances withdraw the appointed defence counsel if the latter does not discharge their duty properly. This article addresses the circumstances in which inadequate performance of appointed defence counsel requires an intervention of the criminal court to ensure the defendant''s right to a fair trial.

Keywords: criminal proceedings, defence counsel, inadequate performance, fair trial

Primož Gorkič

Povzetek: Prispevek prikaže in analizira posebnosti kazenskih postopkov, ki bodo potekali na podlagi Uredbe o Evropskem javnem tožilstvu. Ta uredba, četudi naj bi prinesla unificirana pravila kazenskega postopka, ureja položaj obrambe zelo razpršeno, na več ravneh, z različnimi pravnimi viri. Izluščiti, kakšen je položaj obrambe, bo zato zelo zahtevno. Dodatno je položaj zagovornika otežen zato, ker njegovo strokovno znanje ne pomeni nujno dodane vrednosti pri vodenju obrambe. Jezikovne in pravne ovire v postopkih s tujimi prvinami so lahko tako zahtevne, da bo sam moral poiskati strokovno pomoč pri tistih, ki so v tujem okolju bolj domači. To pa vodi v postopke, v katerih so stroški obrambe zelo visoki, kakovostne obrambe pa deležni le premožni obdolženci.

Ključne besede: kazenski postopek, pravice obrambe, pravica do zagovornika, Evropsko javno tožilstvo, kazenski postopek z mednarodnim elementom, izločitev dokazov, unifikacija kazenskega postopka
Title: Future Challenges for Defence Lawyers: Criminal Procedures Governed by the Regulation on the European Public Prosecutor's Office

Abstract: The article presents and analyses the specific characteristics of criminal proceedings that will be conducted on the basis of the Regulation establishing the European Public Prosecutor''s Office. This regulation, even if it is to bring unified rules of criminal procedure, regulates the position of the defence very dispersedly, on several levels, with different legal sources. It may prove difficult even to establish the position of the defence. In addition, the position of the defender is also difficult because their expertise does not necessarily mean added value in the conduct of defence. Language and legal barriers in the context of procedures with foreign elements can be so demanding that they themselves will have to seek professional assistance with those who are more familiar with the foreign environment. This leads to procedures in which defence costs are very high, making efficient defence available only to those that can afford it.

Keywords: criminal proceedings, rights of defence, right to a defence lawyer, European Public Prosecutor''s Office, criminal procedure with an international element, unification of criminal proceedings

Bojan Podgoršek

Povzetek: Pogodbe o najemu poslovnih prostorov in stanovanj spadajo med najpogostejše in najpomembnejše pravne posle gospodarskih subjektov kot tudi potrošnikov. Kljub temu na tem področju ni pravne gotovosti glede pomena in učinkovitosti izvršljivega notarskega zapisa. Sodna praksa v primerljivih primerih sprejema različne odločitve. Problem učinkovite izvršljivosti najemnikove obveznosti vrnitve nepremičnine lastniku zaradi neplačevanja najemnine je rešljiv z malenkostnima spremembama dveh zakonov, ki urejata to področje: Stanovanjskega zakona ter Zakona o poslovnih stavbah in poslovnih prostorih. Sprememba bi izključila sodno pristojnost za odpoved najemne pogodbe zaradi neplačevanja najemnine.
Ključne besede: najemna pogodba, izvršljivi notarski zapis, odpoved najemne pogodbe, izvršba, vrnitev nepremičnine lastniku

Title: Enforceability of a Notarial Deed of a Lease Agreement

Abstract: Lease agreements for business premises and apartments are one of the most common and most important legal transactions of business entities, as well as consumers. Nevertheless, there is no legal certainty in this area as to the effectiveness of the enforceable notarial deed. Judicial practice makes different decisions in similar cases. The problem of the effective enforceability of a lessee''s obligation to return the property to the owner because of non-payment of rent could be solved by minor amendments to the two laws regulating this area: the Housing Act and the Business Buildings and Business Premises Act. The amendment would exclude court jurisdiction in case of termination of the lease agreement due to non-payment of rent.

Keywords: lease agreement, enforceable notarial deed, cancellation of lease, enforcement, return of property to the owner

Tjaša Ivanc

Povzetek: Izvršitev sodnih odločb v družinskih zadevah predstavlja "stičišče" zakonskih rešitev družinskega in izvršilnega prava ter zapleteno pravno področje, katerega ureditev je velik izziv tako za zakonodajalca kot za strokovnjake v praksi. Prispevek obravnava temeljna načela izvršilnega postopka v družinskih zadevah, ki so determinirana s svojo dvojno naravo. Ta se kaže v procesnopravnih in materialnopravnih elementih, značilnih za obravnavano področje. Posebnosti izvršilnega postopka v družinskopravnih zadevah so obravnavane z analizo posameznih faz izvršbe glede varstva, vzgoje in osebnih stikov otrok, in sicer tako faze dovolitve kot faze oprave izvršbe. Analiza trenutne zakonske ureditve in sodne prakse pokaže, da je ponovna presoja varstva koristi otroka na izvršilnem sodišču možna pri odločanju o odlogu izvršbe in da predstavlja kriterij, po katerem sodišče tehta, ali je treba izvršbo nadaljevati ali jo odložiti. Iz primerjalnopravnih ureditev so podani možni predlogi za nadaljnje spremembe.
Ključne besede: izvršilni postopek, družinske zadeve, ZNP-1, DZ, varstvo otrokove koristi, primernost izvršilnega naslova, spremenjene okoliščine, denarna kazen, odvzem s sodelovanjem izvršitelja
Title: Enforcement of Court Decisions in Family Law Matters

Abstract: Enforcement of court decisions in family matters represents the "meeting point" of legal solutions of family and enforcement law, and is a complex legal area, the regulation of which is a major challenge for both the legislator and practitioners. The article examines the fundamental principles of the enforcement procedure in family matters, which are determined by their dual nature, reflected in the procedural and substantive elements, specific to the field under consideration. The peculiarities of the enforcement procedure in family law matters are addressed by analysing the individual stages of enforcement with regard to the care, upbringing and personal contact of children, namely the phase of permission and the execution of the enforcement phase. The analysis of current regulation and case law shows that a reconsideration of the child''s interests by the enforcement court is possible only when deciding whether to suspend enforcement, and that is a criterion by which the court weighs whether enforcement should be continued or delayed. Possible proposals for further changes are given from a comparative legal overview.
Keywords: enforcement procedure, family matters, ZNP-1, DZ, protection of child''s best interest, appropriateness of enforcement title, change of circumstances, monetary penalty, removal of child with participation of enforcement agent

Damjan Orož

Povzetek: Zastavni upnik lahko zastavno pravico prisilno realizira v izvršilnem ali stečajnem postopku. V obeh veljajo posebna postopkovna in materialna pravila, ki na koncu vplivajo tudi na obseg poplačila zavarovane terjatve.
Ključne besede: zastavni upnik, izvršilni postopek, stečajni postopek, procesni položaj zastavnega upnika, poplačilo terjatve
Title: Repayments to Pledgees (Mortgagees) in Enforcement and Bankruptcy Proceedings

Abstract: A pledgee may execute a lien in enforcement or bankruptcy proceedings. Both are subject to specific procedural and substantive rules, which ultimately affect the extent of repayment of a secured claim.
Keywords: pledgee, enforcement proceedings, bankruptcy proceedings, procedural position of the pledgee, repayment of claims

Andrej Ekart

Povzetek: Namen izvršilnega postopka je zagotoviti izpolnitev obveznosti, ki praviloma izhaja iz pravnomočne in izvršljive sodne odločbe, sodne poravnave ali neposredno izvršljivega notarskega zapisa. Pri tem igra izvršitelj izredno pomembno vlogo, saj je pristojen za izvršbo na premičnine, izvršbo na izročitev stvari, za izpraznitev nepremičnin ipd. V Sloveniji je glede na število prebivalcev sorazmerno malo izvršiteljev. Nekateri imajo veliko dela, drugi manj, kar je posledica tega, da izvršitelja izbira upnik. Izvršitelj lahko opravlja svojo službo na celotnem območju Republike Slovenije, kar privede do tega, da nekateri izvršitelji opravljajo rubeže na območju, ki jim ni znano in od katerega so zelo oddaljeni, kar je povezano z neracionalno porabo izvršiteljevega časa.

Ključne besede: izvršba, izvršilni postopek, izvršitelj, rubež, učinkovitost izvršbe, izvršilni stroški
Title: Bailiff Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

Abstract: The purpose of enforcement proceedings is to ensure the fulfilment of an obligation that results from an enforceable court decision, court settlement or notary deed. The bailiff plays an extremely important role in this, as they are responsible for enforcement on movable property, enforcement on delivery of things, vacating real property, etc. There are relatively few bailiffs in Slovenia per population. Some of them have a lot of work, others less, because the creditor chooses a bailiff. The bailiff may perform their job throughout the territory of the Republic of Slovenia. That is why some bailiffs seize movable property in an area they are unfamiliar with and is very remote to them (inefficient time management).

Keywords: enforcement, enforcement procedure, bailiff, seizure, effectiveness of enforcement, enforcement costs

Janez Pejovnik

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava vlogo odvetnika specialista za športno pravo pri prestopu športnika v nogometu. V prvem delu jo predstavi predvsem s stališča prestopa kot celote, v drugem delu pa sledi kratka analiza pogodbe o prestopu in njenih bistvenih določb.

Ključne besede: športno pravo, odvetnik, nogomet, prestop, pogodba, FIFA

Title: Football Player Transfer from a Legal Perspective

Abstract: The role of a lawyer specialised in sports law in connection with a transfer of a football player, particularly regarding a transfer as a whole, and a short analysis of a transfer agreement and its essential clauses.

Keywords: sports law, lawyer, football, transfer, agreement, FIFA

Vesna Bergant Rakočević

Povzetek: Prispevek obravnava vprašanje pristojnosti Arbitražnega sodišča za šport (CAS). Prikazana je razlika med pristojnostjo in dopustnostjo, nato pa se referat osredotoča na vrste in oblike arbitražnih klavzul. Poseben poudarek je namenjen patološkim arbitražnim klavzulam v postopku navadne arbitraže ter tako imenovanim prisilnim arbitražnim klavzulam, ki so zajete v pravilih športnih organizacij in so relevantne v postopkih pritožbenih arbitraž. Sledi opis prakse senatov CAS, doktrine švicarskega zveznega vrhovnega sodišča, dveh odmevnih odločitev drugih nacionalnih sodišč, belgijskega in nemškega, ter odločitev ESČP, ki so vse relevantne za delovanje CAS.

Ključne besede: CAS, arbitraža, športna arbitraža, razreševanje sporov na področju športa, pristojnost CAS, dopustnost, arbitražna klavzula, prisilne arbitražne klavzule, patološke arbitražne klavzule, specifičnost športa
Title: Resolving Disputes before the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) - Issue of Jurisdiction

Abstract: The article addresses the issue of jurisdiction of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). A distinction is made between the issue of jurisdiction and admissibility, followed by a detailed examination of the types and forms of arbitration clauses. The emphasis is on pathological arbitration clauses in ordinary arbitration proceedings and on compulsory arbitration clauses, which are included in rules of sports organisations and are relevant in the appeals arbitration proceedings. Finally, the article presents case law of CAS panels, the doctrine of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court, important decisions of other national courts, specifically Belgian and German, and the decision of ECHR that addresses the issue of CAS jurisdiction.

Keywords: arbitration, sports arbitration, sports dispute resolution, jurisdiction of CAS, admissibility, arbitration clause, compulsory arbitration clauses, pathological arbitration clauses, specificity of sport

Jure Praprotnik

Povzetek: Avtor v prispevku glede na specifičnost nogometa kot tekmovalnega športa, stopnjo (ne)kršitve pravil nogometne igre, standardov v njej, upoštevajoč riziko, ki ga igralci (ne) sprejemajo z udeležbo v nogometu kot tekmovalnem športu, odločitve sodnikov, položaj igralcev, položaj in možnosti dosega žoge ter naravo tekme, skuša določiti mejo med dopustnim in nedopustnim ravnanjem v nogometu, pri čemer je vsak primer treba obravnavati kazuistično. V sklepu pride do ugotovitve, da je odškodninska odgovornost za prekrške v nogometu prej izjema kot pravilo.

Ključne besede: pravila igre, splošna pravna pravila, meja protipravnosti, odločitve sodnika
Title: Civil Responsibility for Fouls in Football

Abstract: The article includes five chapters, which present the specificity of football as a competitive sport, level of (non)violation of the rules of football, its standards, taking into account the risk that the players (do not) take solely by participating in football as a competitive sport, the decisions of referees, the positions of players, the position and potential of reaching the ball, the nature of the game. The author attempts to establish the boundary between acceptable and unacceptable conduct in football. In this regard, it is necessary to study each case casuistically, as the circumstances of each individual case vary and should be considered. In the conclusion, the author concludes that civil responsibility for fouls in football is more of an exception than a rule.

Keywords: laws of the game, general law rules, conduct limit, referee decision

 
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